Thursday, July 30, 2009

Women evolve prettier, not men – then what about Rama & Krishna?

The following news report on the findings of University of Helsinki that woman are becoming more beautiful from the time of their cavemen- life, while men are not(!?) sounds funny to me.

Women will always be women – beauty is a part of their constitution.

Thinking of it astrologically, even signs (the signs are categorized as odd and even alternating from Aries onwards) and signs ruled by Venus and Moon (Taurus, Libra and Cancer) and the lords of these signs getting associated with the birth lagna confer femininity. If both the lagna and moon sign happen to fall in these signs, the feminine looks will be complete. It is only but natural to expect most women born with these connections.

But if a man has both his lagna and the moon sign in these signs and feminine planets getting associated with these two, he will also look feminine and beautiful! It is better man remains not beautiful. Men are from Mars in astrology too. Jupiter, Mars and Sun signs are better for a man to be born in.

Thinking of this, I can not resist a talk on Rama’s looks!!

Rama’s lagna was Cancer – an even sign.

His moon sign also was Cancer – again the same even sign!!

Moon in Punarpoosam 4th padam shows that his lagna and moon were Vargotthama, strengthening the feminity conferred by the even sign.

But he had Jupiter, in exaltation in Cancer and getting Vargotthama!

Jupiter makes one tall, respectable looking and of good proportions.

Rama’s Samudrika lakshana is completely masculine which will be written in another post. (The masculine samudrika lakshana of Rama is described by Hanuman in Sundhara khandam). But the even sign connection to lagna and moon sign, with Jupiter and moon posited in it would have made him look – what we call a metro-sexual male!

Birth in Cancer must have given Rama a bulge in the belly! Rama must have been on regular fitness work-out. His samdrika lakshana shows that he didn’t have any extra flesh.

Jupiter in lagna and moon in the asterism of Jupiter (Punarpoosam) must have made him look like a tall and respectable Vedik with sharp features.

A gigantic and tall figure with all masculine features but with soft looks makes Rama admirable by men and adorable by women who look for the soft nature somewhere expressed in the looks of a man. This combination made him very humble and soft at places where he has to show such traits and adamant and angry wherever such manly prowess is needed to be exhibited.

In many places in Valmiki Ramayana, Rama’s face is described as a moon – cool and pleasant. His very name Rama means one who gives happiness. His name and looks are very pleasant. Nowhere in Valmiki Ramayana, do we come across his name as Ramachandra. But this name is popular as a name of Rama. (This name found in Padma purana). This is because Rama was pleasant to look at and to think about. This nature is a feminine attribute which came to be incorporated (astrologically) by association with even signs and Moon.

Coming to think of Krishna, he too was born in all feminine sign – in Taurus, an even sign. The lagna and Moon sign were in the same sign and moon was in its own asterism (Rohini) making him to be called as ‘beautiful’. His interests in dance and arts forms are in tune with interests in beauty-related ones that those born in these signs usually get. You rarely recall a Martian anger or warring urge in Krishna.

The basic reason for the feminine sign connection to Rama and Krishna is the sattwic feelings that their figure and traits must develop in the minds of the devotee.

Compassion, love, mercy, caring etc are all feminine traits. Only these traits tame the rough and tough and bring them to sattwic path. World’s renowned figures of these qualities look a little feminine. World’s preachers of religious thought look soft with a feminine tinge. Be it a Buddha or a Jesus or a Vivekananda or Ramana maharishi, one can find such a nature in their looks.

If men are not evolving in beauty – something the research has found out – then it must be a cause of concern. It means that men continue to be rude and crude – they are not only Martian but Saturnine as well.

- jayasree


Latest research has revealed that evolution has made women more beautiful while men have remained the same

Dump those jars of creams and gels. As a woman you don't need them anymore. Evolution keeps you beautiful anyway -- so why worry?

A group of scientists at the University of Helsinki discovered that the woman of today is far more beautiful than her Stone Age counter- part. Over the years women have indeed become more beautiful. But alas -- the men have stayed unchanged and do tend to resemble their cavemen ancestors even today.

Women in Chennai are nevertheless thrilled with these findings. "Men have always been rough and tough in nature while women have been sweet and demure. There is a strong possibility that these qualities have evolved over the ages," says Sunita Jayakumar, a social scientist and consultant psychologist. Natasha Raj, a model, who believes that the word `beautiful' is something that is associated with women couldn't agree more. "You would- n't call a man beautiful, would you?" she asks "Beauty is something that is exclusively for women, no matter how hard we try to break that stereotype.

A woman gets noticed for her looks and a man for his strength," she explains.

The scientists who carried out this study also revealed that the chances of good-looking women having good-looking kids were higher than those who were plainer looking.
Beautiful women also tend to have daughters born to them the study said, which is also a part of the evolution cycle.

Looking at the practical side of things Dr Satish Sambamurthi, a consultant dermatologist consultant dermatologist believes, "These days women are very conscious of the way they look and they are also initiated into this process very early. At a very tender age they start spending time on how they look and this does have an impact on how they look in the long run."

Photographer Dreeamcast Karthik echoes a similar viewpoint and explains that the fact women are able to multi-task also works in their favour, "Yes, I completely agree with the finding that women are getting prettier and this is not just restricted to the upper class of the society. I've noticed that women across all strata of society invest a lot in terms of time and effort to look beautiful."

Wednesday, July 29, 2009

Tall people – then and now!

The following report says that tall people seem to do much better in life than others – though there are exceptions.

Reading this, I get reminded of the height of Rama – 96 inches (4 cubits) – as told by Hanuman in Sundhara khanda.

People were taller in those days. It used to be said that as Time progresses and Dharma declines, man also will become shorter. Man will have to climb a ladder to pluck the Brinjal.

May be this is a philosophical explanation for lack of Dharma. Dharma is signified by the planet Jupiter. A person born with Jupiter significance / lagna will look tall, respectable and of good frame of body. If more and more people are adharmic, perhaps it will come along with indications of Jupiter in affliction in the horoscope which might as well be reflected in their stature – of looking short - not tall as one, with Jupiter connection to his lagna will look.

Speaking on tallness, this is an important issue in Vaastu sastra in deciding the height of residential houses.

Height of man is known as "Purusha Pramana"

Purusha pramana is based on 3 categories of height of persons –

the utthama pramana of men 6'9" taller,

the madhyama pramana of height 6' and

athama pramana of 5'3".

This means there were people of more than 6 feet tall in those days. Compared to that today the average height of Indians is less.

Purusha pramana was helpful in deciding the height of houses. The practice was to build the places of residence on the basis of the height of the owner of the place, if not, the height of his first wife or if not, the height of the eldest son. The reason is obvious.

Based on the height of the owner coming under any of these three categories, the hasta pramana was decided for measurement of the height and breadth of the house and the rooms.

Usually this height that goes in the name of 'hasta' is one fifth of the total height measured from the foot of the person to the tip of the right ring finger of his hand that is stretched upwards.

There are other units also to decide the pramana of hasta. But the widely used one was this. The Hasta pramaana is of 3 types, Utthama, madhyama or athama hasta pramana. There is slight difference between all these three in the descending order from Utthama to Athama. The difference is due to the 3 different height categories of man.

It is said that king Prithviraj Chauhan closely missed Ghori when he aimed his shot at him. The king was blind and was in captivity at that time. He was tipped by his confidante who told him the distance from him to Ghori and the height at which he can aim at Ghori. Prithiviraj was known for his prowess in shooting. It is said that he missed his target as his arrow whistled past just above the head of Ghori.

There is another version that the king killed him just by identifying the direction from which Ghori spoke. Similar instance is found in King Dasharatha's life where the king shot the arrow at Shravan mistaking the noise made when he took water from the pond, to the sound of a deer drinking water. Practice of Dhanur Veda made such precision shots possible and it was a continuing skill for 1000s of years in this land.

Coming to the topic, the question is how Prithvi Raj missed Ghori. Did he make a wrong calculation of the distance from the tips given to him? No, I don't think so.

Prithviraj had already seen Ghori in the first war where he defeated him. So when his friend mentioned the distance and height, he must have calculated the height of the building on the basis of the height of the Sultan thinking that it was built by him.

Since it is said that he missed the target, it means the arrow had flown above Ghori's head. That means the house was built on a pramana of a lesser height than Ghori's! One reason could be that it was not the own house/ palace of Ghori - it must have been someone else's house / palace occupied by Ghori after defeating the person.

That person must have been of the purusha pramana of the category lower to Ghori's.

Thinking from this angle, it becomes increasingly clear that most buildings and palaces of the Mughals were indeed the ones captured from previous rulers of Hindustan and re-christened.

This also shows that the science of civil engineering in India is very old and was highly utilitarian keeping in tune with the requirements of the people for whom the structures were built. The Purusha pramana rules of Vaastu are proof that people of tall stature lived in those days!

- jayasree



Tall tales, in short!

We associate height with power and confidence, but are taller people always more successful?

They're not nicer. They're not prettier. They're not anything else. But they've sort of gotten a halo in society at this point," says Arianne Cohen, author of The Tall Book, in response to a question put to her about tall people across the world. She should know -- she's 6-foot-3 herself and fairly successful.

But Arianne herself says society's love affair with height is more pronounced for men than women. It could perhaps have to do with the fact that perceptions of idealism in women are functions more of relative proportion than outright vertical advantage.

If you'll excuse the verbose anthropology, you'll realize the premise is simple. Taller men are always perceived to be more powerful, either as a result of physical prowess or intelligence. We're not saying it's true (no one is), just that many believe it's the case.
Which is all that's needed to hand taller men an advantage.

Consider the findings of two recent studies.

An Australian study found that men who are 6-foot tall had annual incomes nearly AUS $1,000 dollars more than men who were two inches shorter.

Then there were four large US and UK studies led by Timothy Judge, a management professor at the University of Florida. Judge and his colleague concluded that someone who is seven inches taller -- for example, 6 feet versus 5 feet 5 inches -- would be expected to earn 5,525 dollars more per year.

While money isn't an absolute barometer of success, that's a debate for another day.

The question is -- why do we associate so much with height?

"It's a mix of awe and intimidation," says psychologist Praveen Jhunjhunwala,

"You see a tall person -- you either want to be them or want to see them fall. It's natural.

Plus, taller people are used to leading from a young age -- they are more easily picked for things in school like the sports teams or class representatives. It stands them in good stead all their lives."

But history is littered with great figures who were less than impressive in the height department. In fact, many would argue being short has worked to the advantage of many.

Tuesday, July 28, 2009

Temple for Ram - Organiser article.



The Moving Finger Writes

Coming to terms with the past



What is the matter with us? Why do we constantly take pride in beating our breasts and admitting to imaginary wrong-doings when there is no earthly reason for doing either? The disputed structure at Ayodhya issue has been discussed threadbare, ad infinitum to the point that the very mention of it is sufficient for a vomit. Some questions that need to be faced, but never have been, must now be raised, the disputed structure issue has a history of over a century and quarter and was first raised when the British were in power. The British ducked it. It wasn't in their interest to face it fair and square. The issue, however, needed to be resolved, one way or other. If Muslims had the grace and goodwill to concede a standing plea, their place in India and every Hindu heart would have been eternally etched.

It was General Musharraf who once said that Hindus and Muslims have to come to terms with the past. Conceding to Hindus their most emotive plea would have brought glory to Muslims as understanding and warm-hearted fellow citizens. That, they refused to do. And the consequences are all too well known. The issue let it be said, is more than the demolition of a mosque in disuse. It is a reflection of Islam's refusal to admit to its own guilt for which it has never been punished. Our secularists will immediately point out that the past is past and should not now be focused on. But the disputed structure is only a part—and a very small part at that—of the larger issue of Islamic crimes committed in India for centuries. These have to be boldly faced, if peace between the two communities is to be established in India.

One can forgive but why should one forget all the atrocities the succeeding Muslim rulers committed in India for which they have never paid? The evil that men do, as Shakespeare said, lives after them. The good is oft interred with their bones. Almost from day one, Islam committed atrocities in India that must be fully detailed for the edification of its Indian followers today. It all began first in 712 AD when Mohammad Qasim from Iraq invaded India, and in the words of a historian "demolished temples, shattered sculptures, killed vast number of men—it took his soldiers three days to slaughter the inhabitants of the port city of Debal—and carried off their women and children to slavery".

Subsequently, under orders from the Iraqi ruler, Qasim's men massacred between 6000 and 16,000 men for good measure. What Ghazni Mohammad did was worse. In his book A New History of India, Stanley Wolpert writes that Ghazni Mohammad's Court Chronicler "claimed that 10,000 temples were destroyed in Kanauj alone". Mohammad's sacking of Somnath Temple is old story. The Shivalinga was smashed to pieces and these were then transported to Mecca, Medina and Baghdad to become objects to be trampled by people.

What Mohammad Ghori and his lieutenants did in the last quarter of the 12th century as did Jalaluddin Khilji in the 13th, in destroying temples and breaking idols is best left unsaid. Aurangzeb, obviously learnt much from these barbarians. Why are these stories recounted? That is to tell our liberal secularists and apologists that we have a tragic past, that that past continues to haunt Hindus often causing deep emotional pain. How can these memories be erased? Has anyone thought of that? How many masjids in India's long history have ever been demolished by Hindu rulers? Would the disputed structure have been demolished if only Muslim organisations had shown some sensitivity to Hindu feelings to understand and positively respond to their earnest pleas?

The earlier existence of a temple devoted to Sri Ram on the site where stood the disputed structure has been challenged. Heartless arguments have been adduced to prove that Hindus have no right to ask for the Babri site. The very existence of Sri Ram has been questioned more by Hindu secularists than by Muslims themselves. It is even possible to believe that Muslim organisations would have been willing to concede the disputed site to Hindus were it not for the vicious backing they received from secularists. And what, pray, would the Liberhan Report, submitted after 16 years of deliberation and at a cost of Rs nine crores, want us to do? Damn L K Advani? Kalyan Singh? P V Narasimha Rao? Would that erase the anger and frustration among Hindus caused by thoughtless secularists who want Hindus to forget the past? Is it mean to coerce Muslim votes?

We learn that in Saudi Arabia (which wouldn't allow a single non-Muslim centre of worship to be built on its soil) masjids are routinely demolished if they are in any way found to be redundant. In India we give a masjid long out of use and one which has a bad reputation, greater prominence than to a temple dedicated to divinity which had been sacked and the idol of the presiding deity disfigured. Haven't our secularists any sense of values? Muslim organisations have no hesitation in pronouncing a sense of grievance. Haven't Hindus any equal right to have a sense of grievance against the demolition of not one but literally thousands of temples in daily use? One British traveller from Surat to Delhi in the late 17th century has recorded that during his long journey he had not seen a single Hindu temple. India was not plagued by secularists then and if there were any, they would have been effectively silenced. What is wrong with Hindu psyche? The more our secularists damn Hinduism the more aggrieved do Muslims sound, which is a clever tactic. It is as if Hindus have demolished thousands of masjids and gotten away with the crime.

Even the disputed structure would not have been demolished but would have been respectfully dismantled if Muslims had shown some sensitivity to Hindu feelings.


But the Hindus want to show the world how guilt-conscious they are.


Hindu temples can be pulled down in Malayasia and not a word of protest would be lodged.


In Qaziristan the Taliban can levy a jazia (tax) of Rs 60 lakhs on non-Muslims with the threat that that they either pay or get killed. Many reportedly left their ancient homes.


Not a dog barked.


The saddest part of it all is that in all these years not a single Muslim intellectual in India has stood up to their co-religionists and had the courage and decency—let alone grace—to say that in the matter of the disputed structure Hindus may have a case that should be conceded with warmth and goodwill if only to make amends for that past, in howsoever small a measure.

As for the Liberhan Report its best place is in the stinking dustbin. Only a people sick and with no self-respect, will give it even a single, let alone a second, thought. Seeking the disputed site to build a temple to Sri Ram is not communalism, no matter what our secularists think. It is an assertion of self-respect and should be seen as such. Anything else is folly.





Related posts from this blog:-


From Mumbai to Ayodhya - Ram janma bhoomi

Ayodhya as International city of Ram??



Thursday, July 23, 2009

Did Rama rule for 11,000 years?

One of the intriguing issues of Ramayana is that it says that Rama ruled for 11,000 years. His father Dasaratha also was said to have lived for 60,000 years. Information like this makes the 'rational' one dismiss the very history of Rama.

There is nothing irrational or fictional about it if we know some basics of Time computation in olden days.

First of all, the basic life term for any man is 100 years and it is the wish of any blessing in Vedic parlance.

The blessings given by elders when one prostrates is of Vedic origin (of satya yuga). It is "Shatamaanam bhavathi shataayu: purusha:…" to invoke 100 years of life for the one so blessed. This blessing is repeated in several places in the Upanishads too.

When one performs the daily midday supplication (noon part of Sandhyavndana), the individual prays to the sun when he is in full bloom that he may be blessed to see him for a full life of nearly 100 years. ("PashyEma sharada: shatham… jIvEma sharada: shatham.. etc ) The prayer is for 100 years and this prayer also has its origin in Vedic yuga.

Brahma devan is said to live for 100 years in his time scale. Therefore 100 is the standard year duration for longevity. Since man is at a micro cosmic scale of the Cosmic god Brahma, and though man's life is shaped by the influence of each of the nine planets which runs into a total period of 120 years, this span is roughly around 100 years only.

When the maximum life span of man is expected to be 100 years, why did they say that Rama lived for 11,000 years? Did Rama live for so many years?

No. In Ramayana itself we come across a reference to a maximum life span of 100 years only.

In Sundhara khandam (sargam 34), on seeing that Hanuman has come to redeem her distress, Sita says, " yethi jivantha aanandham naram varshashathadhabhi." (If only a person were to live for a 100 years, he would sure have 'aanandham' sometime even after a 100 years.) Here 'if only a person lives for a 100 years 'make it clear that the average life span of a person in Threta yuga (Sita's times) was not in 1000s of years- but only to a maximum of 100 years!

If so, why the talk of life of 1000s of years?

This can be interpreted in two ways – one by the way of Time (Yuga) calculation used in those days and another the philosophical way.

The Yuga calculation:-

There are 10 types of calculation of time of which the Chatur yuga calculation is one.

In Jyothisha sastra, a text is identified by means of Time calculation used.

Any Siddhantic text will start from Kalpa. The author of a Siddhanta will have to mention the time of his text in the broader concept of Time starting from Kalpa. This is to say that if you happen to read a text referring to the time of writing counted from Kalpa, then know that what you are reading is a Siddhantic grantha.

Similarly any grantha on Tantra will have references to the Yuga in which it was written or about which (the Yuga), the principles are given. Aryabhateeyam is a Tantra grantha, because the author gives the time of writing counted from the beginning of the nearest Yuga, namely Kali yuga.

Similarly any Karana grantha will talk about time starting from the nearest Shaka (Vaikrama or Shalivahana).

It is all about the context in which the yugas are discussed.

Again the very term Yuga is used in various ways.

In any Vedic rirual, the term Yuga refers to the 5-year duration or 5-year Yuga and not the chatur yuga.

Each year of this Yuga is given a name as Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idavatsara, Anuvatsara and Idvatsara. This was the basic classification used in daily life. At the same time the Maha yugas are also used in the context of worship to devas and pitrus. That is on galactic scale and measured in terms of planetary movement. The details of that are given in Siddhanta texts. The basis of that is the solar year.

However for religious purposes the year was reckoned from Uttarayana, the details of which are found in Rig Vedanga Jyothisha. Jupiter was the basis of that counting

12 rounds of 5 years (60 years) make one yuga in Jupiter cycle.
Each of the 5 years is known as a Yuga of Jupiter and 12 Yugas of Jupiter make 60 years named after Prabhava, Vibhava etc., but starting from Vijaya.

Thus we find two types of time-reckoning in the Vedic society in those days - one, solar year based Siddhantic time which incorporate Chatur Maha Yugas counted for a day of Brahma (Kalpa) and another, the Jupiter Yuga of 60 years whose basic unit is 5 year Yuga for religious austerities.

Today this system of 60 years is used for solar years. In absence of adherence to Vedic way of life we have given up 5 year Yuga of Jupiter cycle, but use the year names of the Jupiter cycle. We continue to use the two in any religious activity. We start from Siddhantic Kalpa and continue with the year name and Ayana (of 5 year Yuga) and the subsequent smaller divisions of time. 

A basic feature of the 5 year yuga is that it is a twin - an ascending two and a half years and a descending two and a half years. This is enumerated on the basis of the meeting point of the Sun and the moon once they start from a same point. In two and a half years the Moon goes an extra month. So it is expunged as an Adhika masa by which the next month starts at the same point both in solar and lunar cycle.  

The very word Yuga means twin. The 5 year duration is a Yuga because it has an ascending and descending phase of time as reckoned from the sun and the moon.

Even the Siddhantic Yuga is a twin. One may recall the sankalpa mantra stating 'Kali yuge Pratame Paade' which refers to the 1st paada of Kali yuga (called Utsarpini) which is the 1st half of Kali Yuga. So there are two padas in Kali Yuga. It must have been so for the other Yugas too (Krita, Treta and Dwapara)

In Jyothisha, even rasis are referred to as Yugma rasis. Yugma is derived from the word, Yuga which means two sided.

Anything two sided is a yuga. And time is perceived to be a twin - up and down, ascending and descending.

The basic unit of Time is a day. And a day has a day time and an opposite of it, namely night time.
Therefore the day and the night forms a Yuga - i.e., Ahoratra is a yuga.

The Ayanas (Uttarayana and Dakshinayana) also  constitute a yuga.

In this context, there is a padhati "Ahoreva samvatsar" It means  - the day-night (Ahoratra) form a year because the year also is a Yuga formed by 2 ayanas with Uttarayana as the day time and Dakshinayana as the night time. 

Let me quote the authority for this from Mahabharata.

By the 13th day of the Exile period, Bheema told Yudhisthira that 13 days are equal to 13 years for one who is steadfast in his observance of vows of the Vedic life. Since Yudhishthira was leading such life he can be said to have completed 13 years.

 Mahabharata, Vana parva – section 52

Bheema to Yudhishtira:-

O Bharata, it is, also said by those versed in morality that one day and night is, O great prince, equal unto a full year. The Veda text also, exalted one, is often heard, signifying that a year is equivalent to a day when passed in the observance of certain difficult vows. O thou of unfading glory, if the Vedas are an authority with thee, regard thou the period of a day and something more as the equivalent of thirteen years.

Mahabharata - 3-49   

21 tathā bhārata dharmeṣu dharmajñair iha dṛśyate
     ahorātraṃ mahārāja tulyaṃ saṃvatsareṇa hi
 22 tathaiva veda vacanaṃ śrūyate nityadā vibho
     saṃvatsaro mahārāja pūrṇo bhavati kṛcchrataḥ
 23 yadi vedāḥ pramāṇaṃ te divasād ūrdhvam acyuta
     trayodaśa samāḥ kālo jñāyatāṃ pariniṣṭhitaḥ )

Every day a person is born anew with the sunrise. Coming to live to see the next sunrise is like having finished one year and starting another year.  That is the import.

If we consider the most basic classification of Ahoreva samvatsar,
each day is a samvatsar or a year.

If we say that Rama ruled for 11,000 years, according to this calculation,
he had ruled for 31 years!! (11000 / 360 on the premise that the sun moves at the rate of 1 degree a day)

Look at Rama's life. From Sita's version in Sundhara kanda we know that Rama went on Vanavasa in his 25th year.
25+ 14 years in exile = 39.
He ascended the throne on his 39th year.
If he is to have ruled for 11,000 years, then according to Ahoreva samvatsar, it comes to 31 years.

Add 31 years to 39 when he ascended the throne. 
That means he ruled till his 70th year!

This is how we have to interpret. 

Rama was not alone in terms of 1000s of years of life, even the Pandyan King "Maakeerthi" (who presided over the Assembly where Tol Kappiayam was inaugurated) was praised as having ruled the kingdom for 24,000 years which means he was on throne for 66 to 67 years.

Rama's father Dasaratha was said to have lived for 60,000 years. This is just beyond any calculation, but this was told to express his old age. Rama was a late child and Dasaratha was very much older when Rama was ready for throne. A phenomenal number of age was given to Dasaratha to drive home the point that he was already old. If such age is to be taken in face value, then his wives also must have lived for tens of thousands of years, but nowhere it is told so.

Similarly all the three brothers of Rama were born around the same time and left the world around the same time. If it is true that Rama lived for 11,000 years then his brothers also must have lived for so long. But that is not being told anywhere.

Therefore we have to use our discriminatory sense of perception and interpretation while dealing with such intriguing references or passages, impossible to reason out . While interpreting the past we have to bear in mind the age of the earth and age of life for which we have Surya Siddhanta guidance. If we are to take the meaning as we know it on face value in our limited perception, then we will be in for wrong conclusions. Not only that, we will be also making this vast body of knowledge of Veadanta and Vedanga put into ridicule.

Philosophical way of calculation:-

In Ramayana, Narada tells Valmilki
"raamo raajyam upaasitvaa " - Rama rajyam for 11,000 years.

What does this mean?

" dasha varSa sahasraaNi dasha varSa shataani ca |
raamo raajyam upaasitvaa brahma lokam prayaasyati || " (1-1-97)

97. dasha+varSa+sahasraaNi= ten, years, thousand; dasa+varsha+sataani+ca= ten, years, hundred, also; raamaH= Rama; raajyam+upaasitvaa= kingdom, on reverencing; brahma+ lokam+gamishhyati= Brahma's abode, voyages.

"On reverencing the kingdom for ten thousand years plus another one thousand years, [i.e. for a total of eleven thousand years,] Rama voyages to the abode of Brahma... [1-1-97]

Comment: In rama raajyam upaasitvaa... the word used is upaasana is not ruling by sceptre but 'reverentially idolised the kingdom...' as one would regard or treat his personal god with reverence. Rama thus reverenced his kingdom as a devotee of his subjects and this is the concept of raama raajya.

The commentary above puts the entire issue in a different perspective!!

Raama established Raama rajyam for 10,000 + 1000 years after which He left for His Abode.

Raama rajyam stands for Raama's ideals in different spheres of life and governance. Even at the time of Vaali vadam it is said that since the entire earth was under Ikshvahu hold, Raama was bound to establish its dharma by slaying Vaali. It is well known that the entire land mass was not under Ikshvahu dynasty. This implies that the dharma, the ideals and the value systems which the dynasty stood for, were followed throughout the land mass. In that way, Rama Rajya dharma will live for 11,000 years.

It is often told that Raama's story will live as long as Himalayas and the Ganga will live. Rama Rajyam or Rama's memory will be there till Ganga flows. Perhaps Ganga will flow for 11,000 years after Rama's birth!! Today scientists accept that Ganga will vanish one day. We find reference to this in other olden texts too.

Rama-Rajya dharma will live as long as Ganga flows in this land.

Related articles:

Did Valmiki compose Uttara Ramayana?

On Yugas:

Animal- behavior during eclipse.



The following is the news report on the animal behavior in a Zoo in Lucknow. The animals were huddled together during the eclipse and did not take food at that time.

It is easy to dismiss this as a reaction to sudden change in the heat and light. But yesterday's eclipse started at dawn and there is no way to attribute a reason to light as it was already cool and twilight-like. Such difference is noticeable in solar eclipses during midday but certainly not yesterday.


Animals are sensitive to something else in the environment that we are not aware of.

One behavior I have noticed is the regular coo of a lone bird everyday that I used to hear exactly at sunrise and sun set.


The exact sunrise and sunset are the agnihotra timings which I used to meticulously stick to for doing agnihotra. As though to tell me that the solar disc is rising or going down, the bird used to give a sound exactly at those times. I have not heard the sound at other times. In previous solar eclipses too, I have noticed the sound of it exactly at the time of beginning of the eclipse or at the moment the eclipse completely disappears. This time I heard the voice of this bird exactly at the time eclipse ended in my place.


I used to think that birds detect something at sunrise and sunset which is peculiar only to those times. It is because of this only Agnihotra is done exactly at those times. There is some change in radiation form the sun or there is something peculiar about sun rise and sunset. Even if the sky is overcast or raining, this change in radiation from the sun that happens at the moment its disc crosses up or crosses down does not fail to reach the earthlings. This has been noted in experiments on agnihotra where it is found out that the offer of rice in the agnihotra fire exactly at sunrise and sunset creates many oxides that strengthen the air and removes pollution.


A similar change in radiation must be occurring at the time of eclipse when the disc of the sun is hidden. This changed radiation is perhaps felt by the animals.


-         jayasree







Solar eclipse: Zoo inmates mistake morning darkness for dusk



The humans might have excitedly watched the solar eclipse early Wednesday morning

but zoo inmates went into a quiet mood mistaking the morning darkness for dusk.


"We had planned in advance to study the impact of eclipse on behaviour

of inmates", said Renu Singh, zoo director.

The zoo workers watched the behavior of birds, smaller and bigger animals all through the hours of eclipse, from 5.30 till 7.30 in the morning. All of them were found huddled together in groups and birds stopped eating, especially during the 20 minutes when light was almost cut down.

While the lion king, Prince had retreated to its den thinking it's time to go to sleep, white tiger, Aryan, in a pre-sleep composure, had some cool moments inside the water pond inside its enclosure. The peahen with her chicks had taken shelter inside bushes and deer chose to stay together.

Birds and giant squirrels sat in their boxes and there were many others like Chimpanzees which went inactive and `mahok' birds that live in `bamboo bushes' who started making sounds that they make during evening hours.

There were quite a few inmates that behaved normally unaffected by the eclipse like monkeys, zebras, giraffes and rhino. "They all returned to their normal behavior when the eclipse ended," said the director.

Australian aborigines of Indian origin?


They Share Telltale Mutations With Modern-Day Indian Population, Reveals Genetic Research


July 23, 2009

Washington: Genetic research conducted by a team of Indian scientists has indicated that aborigines, who initially arrived in Australia via south Asia, may have originated from India.

    The evidence was found by Dr Raghavendra Rao, who worked with a team of researchers from the Anthropological Survey of India, to find telltale mutations in modern-day Indian populations that are exclusively shared by Aborigines.

    For the research, the team sequenced 966 complete mitochondrial DNA genomes from Indian 'relic populations'.

    "Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother and so allows us to accurately trace ancestry. We found certain mutations in the DNA sequences of the Indian tribes we sampled that are specific to Australian Aborigines," said Rao.

    This shared ancestry suggests that the Aborigine population migrated to Australia via the so-called "Southern Route".

    The "Southern Route" dispersal of modern humans suggests movement of a group of hunter-gatherers from the Horn of Africa, across the mouth of the Red Sea into Arabia and southern Asia at least 50 thousand years ago. Subsequently, the modern human populations expanded rapidly along the coastlines of southern Asia, southeastern Asia and Indonesia to arrive in Australia at least 45 thousand years ago. 

    The genetic evidence of this dispersal from the work of Rao and his colleagues is supported by archeological evidence of human occupation in the Lake Mungo area of Australia dated to approximately the same time period. Discussing the implications of the research, Rao said, "Human evolution is usually understood in terms of millions of years. This direct DNA evidence indicates that the emergence of 'anatomically modern' humans in Africa and the spread of these humans to other parts of the world happened only fifty thousand or so years ago." 

    "In this respect, populations in the Indian subcontinent harbor DNA footprints of the earliest expansion out of Africa," he added. "Understanding human evolution helps us to understand the biological and cultural expressions of these people, with far reaching implications for human welfare," he added. ANI

CONTINENTAL COUSINS: Aboriginal population migrated to Australia via the so-called 'Southern Route', say Indian researchers

Australian Aborigines Initially Arrived Via South Asia

ScienceDaily (July 21, 2009) — Genetic research indicates that Australian Aborigines initially arrived via south Asia. Researchers have found telltale mutations in modern-day Indian populations that are exclusively shared by Aborigines.

Dr Raghavendra Rao worked with a team of researchers from the Anthropological Survey of India to sequence 966 complete mitochondrial DNA genomes from Indian 'relic populations'. He said, "Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother and so allows us to accurately trace ancestry. We found certain mutations in the DNA sequences of the Indian tribes we sampled that are specific to Australian Aborigines. This shared ancestry suggests that the Aborigine population migrated to Australia via the so-called 'Southern Route'".


The 'Southern Route' dispersal of modern humans suggests movement of a group of hunter-gatherers from the Horn of Africa, across the mouth of the Red Sea into Arabia and southern Asia at least 50 thousand years ago. Subsequently, the modern human populations expanded rapidly along the coastlines of southern Asia, southeastern Asia and Indonesia to arrive in Australia at least 45 thousand years ago. The genetic evidence of this dispersal from the work of Rao and his colleagues is supported by archeological evidence of human occupation in the Lake Mungo area of Australia dated to approximately the same time period.

Discussing the implications of the research, Rao said, "Human evolution is usually understood in terms of millions of years. This direct DNA evidence indicates that the emergence of 'anatomically modern' humans in Africa and the spread of these humans to other parts of the world happened only fifty thousand or so years ago. In this respect, populations in the Indian subcontinent harbor DNA footprints of the earliest expansion out of Africa. Understanding human evolution helps us to understand the biological and cultural expressions of these people, with far reaching implications for human welfare."


Journal reference:

1.                   Satish Kumar, Rajasekhara REDDY Ravuri, Padmaja Koneru, B P Urade, B N Sarkar, A Chandrasekar and V R Rao. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link. BMC Evolutionary Biology, (in press) [link]

Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link.

Satish Kumar email, Rajasekhara REDDY Ravuri email, Padmaja Koneru email, B P Urade email, B N Sarkar email,A Chandrasekar email and V R Rao email

BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:173doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-173

Published: 22 July 2009

Abstract (provisional)


An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous.


In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines.


Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route".

Adapted from materials provided by BioMed Central, viaEurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Wednesday, July 22, 2009

The sky map at the time of Mahabharata war.

After seeing too much confusion on Mahabharata date, particularly made by Mr Nilesh Oak completely derailing astrological and cultural aspects of Mahabharata, I decided to study the text myself. It was rewarding as I was able to validate the traditional date of Mahabharata war that happened 35 years before the start of Kali yuga. Written it in the ebook critiquing Nilesh Oak's book on Mahabharata date and published it in October 2019. It is available for free in Kindle unlimited for Indian readers. Can be accessed here.

The specific chapter deciphering the date can be read here also

Read my blog to know the contents and the links to ebook in amazon UK and USA

The date is October 23, 3136 BCE, in the year Krodhi

The blogpost below was written in 2009, a decade before I did my own analysis of Mahabharata references to deduce / validate the traditional date. Request readers to read my ebook.

An article on dating the Mahabharata war based on the astro details given in Mahabharata is given below. Great work has been done by persons like Dr Narahari Achar and others. However I am worried about the correctness of the astro data they have taken as the basis from the Mahabharata.

--> -->The following are the important references to planets found in Udyoga and Bhishmaparva
(i) conjunction of sani (Saturn) with Rohini (Adebaran)
(ii) retrograde motion of anga_raka (Mars) just before reaching jyeshta (Anteares)
(iii) a lunar eclipse on the ka_rtika porn.ima, followed by
(iv) a solar eclipse at jyesht.ha.

Of these 4, I am afraid that the first two are not correctly understood. The different references to them in Mahabharata can be understood from Jyothisha only.

Of the first two, the second one stands dismissed on a very basic astrological rule that Mars can not go retrograde in a sign where Sun is in transit. The solar eclipse is said to have happened with Sun in Jyeshta, in the solar month of Scorpio (Karthigai). The outer planets namely Mars, Jupiter and Saturn can not regress in close proximity of the Sun. The retrogression of these planets begins when they transit in the 5th to 9th signs from the Sun.

The location of and aspect by Mars is mentioned at two places.

MB(V.141. 8)
“Mars has performed a retrograde turn at Antares, oh, madhusudana, and appears
to be begging Anuradha’s friendship, as if to pacify it.”

MB(VI. 3. 13)
“The mahagraha appears to bring about an awful destruction in both armies. Mars is retrograde in magha and Jupiter in Shravana”

A combined reading of these two verses shows that Mars was in the constellation of Ashwini and aspecting Magha (Regulus in Leo) by 4th aspect and Jyeshta by its 8th aspect. Mars goes retrograde from 228 degrees to 132 degrees to the Sun. It is said that the Sun was in Jyeshta. Jyeshta begins at 16-4 degrees in Scorpio. Assuming that the Sun had just entered Jyeshta and was at 17 degrees at the time of narration, then Mars could be retrograde only till 132 degrees from the Sun. The remaining 13 degrees in Scorpio + 4 signs for 120 degrees (till Pisces) gets 133 degrees. This point is zero degrees Aries. This is just 1 degree short of the end of retrogression of Mars.

What is needed for our analysis is that when Sun entered Jyeshta, Mars was still in retrogression. If Mars was well into Ashwini at that time, its 4th aspect (between 90 - 120 degrees) could fall on the beginning of Magha in Leo. Its 8th aspect (210-240 degrees) could fall in Scorpio covering Jyeshta. Since Mars was in retrogression, these aspects also would seem to move backwards.

It must be noted that the retrogression of Martian aspect on Magha was mentioned in the 2 parvas, one when Krishna went as messenger and another just before the satrt of the war. That means these two instances had happened within a short time gap.

Now let us look at the first information on Saturn in conjunction with Rohini.
Astrology shows that this is also not a correct understanding.
The affliction of Rohini by Saturn is by means of its 10th aspect. Like Mars and Jupiter, Saturn enjoys special aspects on 3rd and 10th house from itself in addition to 7th aspect.

From Mahabharata we come to know that it was in Purva Phalguni, afflicting Bhaga. Bhaga is the lord of Purva phalguni. From Purva Phalguni, the 10th aspect falls on Rohini.

MB(VI. 3. 14)
“The son of Surya has crossed the asterism purva-phalguni, and is vexing. Oh King, Shukra has entered purva-bhadrapada going around uttara-bhadrapada and is rising in both.”

MB(VI. 2. 32)
“Oh King, Saturn is harassing Aldeberan and the spot on the Moon has shifted from its position. Something terrible will happen.”

The harassment of Rohini is mentioned in this verse, which is about a very malefic yoga called Rohini sakata bheda. To quote Varahamihira, “When Saturn, Mars or a comet cuts the wain of Rohini, what shall I say, alas! For, the whole world will perish, being plunged in the ocean of misery." “Men with their children will suffer from hunger and weapons"

There have been instances of Saturn afflicting Rohini causing death and destruction. King Dasaratha prayed for redress by “Sani sthuthi” when it crossed Rohini during his reign.
The last time Saturn cut across Rohini, WTC was attacked. Indian Parliament was ambushed and J&K Assembly was attacked. In the previous sojourn of Saturn into Rohini saw the Workld war II. When Mars crossed Rohini at that time, atom bombs destroyed Nagasaki and Hiroshima.

This affliction to Rohini can also happen through the aspects of Saturn. Very recently when Saturn afflicted Rohini by 10th aspect, the Air France plane plunged into the sea. The train carrying LPG went up in flames in Italy. Like this we can show the manifestation of the results of the affliction caused to Rohini by Saturn.

In the description in Mahabharata, it is not about direct affliction by conjunction. It is the by the 10th aspect of Saturn.

Reason -1:- If it is by conjunction, then Saturn in Taurus must be in retrogression (in a sign beyond 5th and within 9th from the Sun). This is not mentioned in the epic which mentions the retrogression of Mars.

Reason -2:- Saturn is mentioned to be in Purva phalguni approaching towards Bhaga. This is clear indication of Saturn in Leo. If we assume that Saturn was in Taurus in Rohini, from Rohini it’s 3rd aspect does not reach Purva phalguni in Leo. In the same chapter it is said that Saturn afflicts Vishaka too (Those two blazing planets, viz., Vrihaspati and Sani, having approached the constellation called Visakha, have become stationary there for a whole year.). From Rohini in Taurus, Vishaka is not within any aspectual range. It falls short of the 7th aspect of Saturn. Whereas from Purva phalguni, the 3rd aspect falls on Vishaka and 10th aspect falls on Rohini. (The mention of Jupiter (vrihaspathi) is because Jupiter is the planetary lord of Vishaka.)

There is another important information in this context which only Jyothisha can explain. It is about the position of Venus.

MB(VI. 3. 14)
“Oh King, Shukra has entered purva-bhadrapada going around uttara-bhadrapada and is rising in both.”

Venus in Purva bhadrapada going towards Uttra Bhadrapada means it must be positioned in Pisces. This is also an impossible situation because Venus can not be sighted 47 degrees away from the Sun – forward or backward. Venus is an inner planet and can be seen only within 3 signs (at the most) of the sun. When Sun was in Scorpio, Venus could not be in Pisces or even Aquarius.

Let us consider another scenario of Venus behind the Sun within 47 degrees. Jyeshta begins from 16-40 degrees in Scorpio. Assuming that the sun has just entered Jyeshta, Venus could have been at the farthest at 20 minutes in the fag end of Virgo – at 29-40 degrees. From there its 7th aspect does not fall on the Bhadrapada stars, but only on Revathy.

So we must look for the clues on issues around Venus. The clue is not difficult to seek. What is mentioned is the Upa-graha of Venus, called Indrachapa.

It is a very common practice to refer to the upa-grahas of planets in both the Epics. Upa-grahas are mathematical points in the sky that can be located in two ways. There are Gulikaadhi Upagrahas which are 4 in number (Gulika, the upa-graha of Saturn, Kaala, the Upgraha of Sun, Yamakanta, the upagraha of Jupiter and Artha-praharana, the upagraha of Mercury) and are located from sunrise on the basis of the day of the week.

Another set of Upagrahas are Dhoomadhi Upa-grahas which are 5 in number. ( Dhooma - of Mars, Vyatipata - of Rahu, Parivesha - of Moon, Indrachapa - of Venus and Dhoomaketu or Upa-ketu - of Ketu). The Dhoomadhi upa-grahas are located from the location of sun in the sky. The upa-grahas are the ready- reckoner for prediction at any given moment. By looking at the location of upagrahas at any time, our elders used to tell whether that moment was auspicious or not. That is why Upa-grahas play a vital role in prediction in Horary astrology (Prasna). Veda Vyasa talks about them in his narration by which he deduced that that moment was impregnated with calamities.

It is possible to locate the upa grahas of the planets if we know the position of the sun.
We can locate the position of the upa-graha of Venus in a place which tallies with the affliction to the 2 bhadrapada stars.

The sun was in Jyeshta. It means it must have been in the last 10 degrees of Scorpio. Assuming it to be in 7-20-00 (sign- degrees –minutes), by adding 4-13-20, we get the location of Dhooma (upagraha of Mars) in Aries.

By deducting 12 signs from Dhooma we get the location of Vyatipada (of Rahu) in Aries.

By adding 6 signs to Vyatipada, we get the location of Parivesha (of Moon) in Libra.

By subtracting Parivesha from 12 signs, we get the location of Indrachapa, the upa-graha of Venus in Virgo. From Virgo, Indrachapa aspects the bhadrapada stars!

Here is another verse on the upa-grahas.

MB(VI. 3. 15)
yamagraha is luminous and together with dhooma and parivesha has crossed over to jyeshta the bright asterism ruled by Indra.”

Yamagraha is the Yamakanda, the upa-graha of Jupiter which is said to have crossed dhooma and parivesha and was in Jyeshta. This corresponds well with the above location of Upa-grahas. Dhooma was in Aries. In direct opposition (7th aspect) to that was Parivesha in Libra. Yamakanda has not aligned with Parivesha (from where Dhooma aspect is felt) or Dhooma. It and was in Scorpio, in Jyeshta.

A crucial information from the location of Yamakanta is the day of week when these details were uttered by Veda Vyasa to Dhritharashtra. The Sun was in Jyeshta at the time. If Yamakanta also was in Jyeshta in the rising lagna of the Sun then it must have been a Thursday! Only on Thursdays, Yamakanta rises in the constellation / lagna of the Sun.

Then we have the most important information on aspect by the nodes.

MB(VI. 3. 11)

“The Earth is experiencing tremors intermittently and Rahu has seized the Sun. Svetagraha has transgressed chitra

MB(V. 141. 9)
“Indeed a great danger awaits the kuru family and is indicated by the graha afflicting Spica.”

MB(V. 141. 10)
“The moon lost its luster and Rahu is approaching the Sun.”
From the above verses, it is known that Chitra (Spica) was afflicted by Ketu and Sun was afflicted by Rahu. Since it was the time of an eclipse, Rahu and Ketu must be afflicting Sun by conjunction and opposition - in Scorpio or Taurus. Which one is conjunct and which is in opposition must be made out from the aspectual information given.

When it is said that Ketu afflicts Chithra, it can not do so from Taurus. There is no 5th aspect for Ketu. But there are 3rd and 11th aspects by the nodes. So if Ketu was in Scorpio (with the sun), the 11th aspect falls on Virgo- Libra (Chithra). Rahu must be in Taurus in opposition to the Sun
Based on the above issues discussed, the location of planets as given at the time of Mahabharata must have been like this.

The combination of planets as given above fulfills the occurrence of an earthquake, fire power, destruction and death by war and death of Kings (rulers). Instead of an earthquake, there is another possibility that a meteor-hit happened somewhere on the earth at that time. Because the omens noted by Veda Vyas are of the nature of a meteor hit throwing up massive dust clouds and tremors under the ground. It is not out of place to analyse and connect the Cuniform tablet of the Sumeraians dated at 5000 years ago showing a Meteor hit. There is a proof of such a hit in Austria about 5000 years ago. The details are given here:-


"The giant landslide centred at Köfels in Austria is 500m thick and five kilometres in diameter and has long been a mystery since geologists first looked at it in the 19th century. The conclusion drawn by research in the middle 20th century was that it must be due to a very large meteor impact because of the evidence of crushing pressures and explosions. But this view lost favour as a much better understanding of impact sites developed in the late 20th century…

…new research by Alan Bond, Managing Director of Reaction Engines Ltd and Mark Hempsell, Senior Lecturer in Astronautics at Bristol University, brings the impact theory back into play. It centres on another 19th century mystery, a Cuneiform tablet in the British Museum collection No K8538 (known as “the Planisphere”).

It was found by Henry Layard in the remains of the library in the Royal Place at Nineveh, and was made by an Assyrian scribe around 700 BC. It is an astronomical work as it has drawings of constellations on it and the text has known constellation names. It has attracted a lot of attention but in over a hundred years nobody has come up with a convincing explanation as to what it is. With modern computer programmes that can simulate trajectories and reconstruct the night sky thousands of years ago the researchers have established what the Planisphere tablet refers to. It is a copy of the night notebook of a Sumerian astronomer as he records the events in the sky before dawn on the 29 June 3123 BC (Julian calendar). Half the tablet records planet positions and cloud cover, the same as any other night, but the other half of the tablet records an object large enough for its shape to be noted even though it is still in space. The astronomers made an accurate note of its trajectory relative to the stars, which to an error better than one degree is consistent with an impact at Köfels. "

- end quote-

The omens noted by our ancients constitute a separate skanda / part of Astrology. The omens are not blind beliefs. They are related to some events happened or yet to happen when such events throw up prior indications. The omens, the planetary positions etc as told by Veda Vyasa are consistent with astrological principles that they can not be dismissed as fiction.

Another note I wish to make is that the Zodiac with its division of signs is not of later origin or borrowed from the Greeks. It is a notion promoted by people who are not aware of Astrology of our land. Unfortunately, our own people are following what the westerners say, similar to how the following is there for Aryan Invasion theory.

Without the zodiac there is no astrology. The Zodiac is personified as Kala Purusha based on which the entire astrology is revolving. The signs and planets were part of Hindu astrological system. Even in Ramayana, King Dasharatha describes the planets that taunted his birth star. Planetary aspects can not have relevance if they are not conencted to rasi or sign or bhava. I am planning to do a separate write-up on this later. For the present article, it must be noted that the astro details given at the time of Mahabharatha war are cosnsitent with astrology and can not be ignored while locating the period in any software.


It is my humble opinion that locating this map is sure to give the date of Mahabharata that tally well with Krishna’s time and the ushering in of kaliyuga. The present work (given below) does not tally with the Kaliyuga calculation. It comes later to Krishna’s end and after Kaliyuga started. Any work must fulfill these two main criteria too.

Birth date of Krishna worked by Dr BV Raman :-

Birth date of Krishna (astrologically)

Other related posts:-

Krishna, a reality – archeological proof.

Krishna Jayanthi on 3 days!!!



Figure 1 shows the star map for September 20, 3067 BCE, corresponding to Ka_rtika Porn.ima. On that day Krishn.a was in Hastinapura for the peace talks. It was also a day of Lunar eclipse. S’ani is clearly seen to be near rohin.i. Figure 2 shows the star map for October 14, 3067 BCE, corresponding to Ama_va_sya at Jyesht.ha. It was a solar eclipse day. Superposed on the star map is the path of Anga_raka which shows a retrograde loop before reaching Jyesht.ha. The retrograde motion of Mars had occurred several months earlier. These two figures clearly show that the important planetary configurations noted earlier occurred in 3067 BCE. Figure 3 shows the day of Bhi_shma’s expiry.

The important planetary configurations

The important references to planets consist of those that are common to both Udyoga and Bhishmaparvan-s and include the following

(i) conjunction of s’ani with rohin.i
(ii) retrograde motion of anga_raka just before reaching jyesht.ha
(iii) a lunar eclipse on the ka_rtika porn.ima, followed by
(iv) a solar eclipse at jyesht.ha.
These events lead to a unique year for the war. All other references in the epic are consistent with this date.

III. Simulations using Planetarium Software and the date of the war

A search is made for the years in which there is a conjunction of Saturn (s’ani) with Aldebaran (rohini) between 3500 BCE and 500 CE. As Saturn takes an average of 29.5 years to go around the sun once, the event also repeats with the same period. There are 137 such conjunctions during the interval specified above. A search is then made for those years from among these 137 dates when Mars (anga_raka) is retrograde before reaching Antares (jyesht.ha). Since the retrograde motion of Mars repeats with the same period as its synodic period, a spread of two years on either side of each of the dates was considered in the search. The search reduced the set to just seventeen: 3272 BCE, 3067 BCE, 2830 BCE, 2625 BCE, 2388 BCE, 2183 BCE, 1946 BCE, 1741 BCE, 1504 BCE, 1299 BCE, 1061 BCE, 857 BCE, 620 BCE, 415 BCE, 28 CE, 233 CE and 470 CE, when Saturn was near Aldebaran and Mars executed a retrograde motion before reaching Antares. A search is then made for those years in which there is a lunar eclipse near Pleiades (i.e., on the ka_rtika porn.ima). This reduces the set to just two, 3067 BCE and 2183 BCE. It turns out that in both of these years the lunar eclipse is followed by a solar eclipse at jyesht.ha. A sequence of ‘two eclipses within a period of 13 days’ also occurs in the two eclipse seasons. When one considers the fact that Bhi_shma passed away on the Ma_gha s’ukla asht.ami after the occurrence of winter solstice, a unique date results, for the winter solstice in January 13, 3066 BCE occurred on s’uklapan~cami where as the winter solstice in 2182 BCE occurred on krishn.acaturthi.

Thus a unique date of 3067 BCE for the date of the war emerges. The author has shown that this date is consistent with all the other astronomical references in the epic in several publications[8] with the help of copious illustrations of star maps generated by Planetarium software. A couple of the star maps will be included as part of this essay by way of illustration.

Figure 1 shows the star map for September 20, 3067 BCE, corresponding to Ka_rtika Porn.ima. On that day Krishn.a was in Hastinapura for the peace talks. It was also a day of Lunar eclipse. S’ani is clearly seen to be near rohin.i. Figure 2 shows the star map for October 14, 3067 BCE, corresponding to Ama_va_sya at Jyesht.ha. It was a solar eclipse day. Superposed on the star map is the path of Anga_raka which shows a retrograde loop before reaching Jyesht.ha. The retrograde motion of Mars had occurred several months earlier. These two figures clearly show that the important planetary configurations noted earlier occurred in 3067 BCE. Figure 3 shows the day of Bhi_shma’s expiry.


In January 2001, Indian History Congress was holding its Annual
Conference at the Alipur Campus of the University of Calcutta and at
the concluding session of the said Conference the Nobel Laureate
economist Dr. Amartya Sen, while addressing the delegates, said that
Ramayana and Mahabharata do not have any historical value. These two
epics are simply mythology and nothing but poets’ fancy. He also said
that neither Rama nor Krishna was a historical personality and both of
them were simply mythical.

Gandhiji wrote two commentaries on Shrimadbhagavadgita, Anasaktiyoga
and Gitabodha, and in the introduction of the former work, he wrote,
“Generally Mahabharata is taken to be a historical work. But in my
opinion, it is not so. I cannot say that Ramayana and Mahabharata are
historical works
. They are simply religious works. If you are still
inclined to treat them as historical works, then I should say that
they are nothing but the history of the Self (Atma). They do not
contain what happened thousands of years ago. On the contrary, they
are the reflections of what is happening today in every soul”. About
Lord Krishna, he wrote, ”Krishna of Gita is the embodiment of pure and
divine knowledge, but without having any physical existence. By this
the Avatar Krishna is not denied at all, but only it is said that He
is mythical”.

It is not difficult to understand that all such utterances of Sen,
Gandhi and many other like minded Indians derive inspiration from the
Western interpretation of Indian history. Most of the Western scholars
firmly believe that our ancestors grossly neglected writing history
and what we claim to be our history is nothing but mythology. So M.
Winternitz in his History of Indian Literature writes, “History is one
weak spot in Indian literature. It is, in fact, non-existent. The
total lack of historical sense is so characteristic that the whole
course of Sanskrit literature is darkened by the defect”. The renowned
German scholar Max Muller, in his History of Ancient Sanskrit
Literature, writes, “No wonder that a nation like India cared so
little for history”. “With regard to history, the Hindus have done
really nothing but romances from which some truth may occasionally be
extracted”, says another Western scholar Major Wilford. These scholars
refuse to accept Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Puranas as historical
works as there are no mention of year and dates of the events
described therein.

But people of this country firmly believe that Ramayana, Mahabharata
and the Puranas are their history and not simply epics or poets’
. So Dr. S. Kalyanaraman, the director of the Chennai based
Saraswati River Research Centre, says that the historicity of the
events described in Ramayana and Mahabharata is validated by two
evidences: one is based on tradition and the other is based on
jyotisha, or planetary configurations and other celestial events
narrated along with mundane events described in those epics, which may
be called sky epigraphs.

So far tradition is concerned, people of this nation believe that Lord
Rama was born on the day of Ramanavami and Lord Krishna was born on
the day of Janmastami and so on. In fact, there is a long list of such
traditional beliefs such as: Bhishma died on the Bhishmastami day, on
the day of Vijaya Dashami, Lord Rama celebrated the day, with His
army, as the day of victory after killing Ravana and defeating his
army just on the previous day, on the day of Deepavali, Lord Rama
returned to Ayodhya after 14 years of exile and the people of Ayodhya
celebrated the day and decorated their houses by lighting lamps and
the tradition is still being continued; the War of Kurukshetra began
on the day of Gita Jayanti and so on and so forth.

It is really strange that the people of Western Garhwal,
now in the state of Uttaranchal, observe every year the Duryodhana
There also exists a temple dedicated to Duryodhana where
people offer their puja and many believe that the city of Varanavat,
where Duryodhana tried to burn the Pandavas alive, was situated in
that locality. It is also really striking that people of this country
offer water in memory of Bhishma during shraddha ceremony. The point
to be highlighted here is that, had all these been poets’ fancy and
mythical, the traditions could not have been continued for such a long

The aspect of celestial epigraph, or planetary positions
described in these epics, particularly in Mahabharata, undoubtedly
shows that the said epics do mention the dates of events described
therein, which the Western scholars failed miserably to understand. In
Mahabharata alone there are 150 instances where worldly events are
mentioned along with the planetary positions in the sky. And, in
addition to that, other astronomical events such as occurrence of an
eclipse, or appearance of a comet, or rare events like shower of
meteorites have been mentioned. A few of such examples may be
mentioned below

The Udyoga Parva of Mahabharata narrates that, just before the War,
Lord Krishna, in His final peace mission, went to Hastinapur in the
month of Kartika. He set out on the day when moon was at the asterism
Revati. On His way to Hastinapur, Krishna took rest for a day at a
place called Brikasthala, and on that day the moon was at the asterism
Bharani. The day on which Duryodhana turned down each and every effort
of Lord Krishna to make peace and made the war inevitable, the moon
was resting at the asterism Pushya. And the Lord left Hastinapura with
Karna, on the day when the moon was yet to reach the asterism Uttara
Phalguni. As mentioned above, Karna accompanied Him to some distance
to see Him off and he then described to the Lord the positions of
planets in the sky and expressed his apprehension that such a
planetary configuration stood for very bad omen: such as large scale
loss of life and drenching of blood. Vyasadeva narrated all these
planetary positions in as many as sixteen verses as if someone was
describing it after visualizing them in the sky. It is also well known
that during the War, Lord Balarama went on a pilgrimage to holy places
along the banks of the River Saraswati and Mahabharata describes the
position of the moon during the entire course of pilgrimage. For
example, He set out on the day when the moon was at the asterism
Pushya and returned on the day when the moon was at the asterism

The Mahabharata also mentions the occurrence of a solar
eclipse at the asterism Jyestha
and a lunar eclipse at the asterism
Krittika, just before the beginning of the War. It also mentions the
appearance of a comet at the asterism Pushya, on the 8th day of the
bright half of the month of Magha, when Bhishma died. On that day the
moon was at the asterism Rohini and it was the day of Winter Solstice.
The day on which Ghatotkacha, son of Bhima, died, the moon appeared at
the horizon at 2.00 a.m. The epic also mentions the occurrence of a
very rare astronomical event that took place prior to the War: three
eclipses, two lunar and a solar, within a lunar month of 27 days.

There is also another continuing tradition in this country
that says that the beginning of the present Kali Yuga, Kurukshetra
death of Lord Krishna and coronation of Emperor Yudhishthira were
contemporary events. Famous astronomer Aryabhatta in his celebrated
work Aryabhatiyam had accepted the said tradition and used the word
“Bharatapurvam” in the said work very often and scholars agree that he
used the word to refer to such events that occurred before the
Mahabharata War. In 1991, Dr. D. Abhayankar and Dr. Ballabh of the
Osmania University calculated that the present Kali Yuga began on 7th
February, 3104 B.C.
But it is now well accepted by the both Eastern
and the Western scholars that the present Kali Yuga began on the
midnight of 17th and 18th February, 3102 B.C. And hence it can roughly
be said that the Mahabharata War took place nearly 5000 years ago from

Today, man has created a machine called computer which,
though most idiotic, can do mathematical calculations at an incredible
speed. According to a popular ad of a computer company, the
calculations which Johannes Kepler took ten years to complete can be
done today within minutes, using a computer. It has therefore been
possible for the scientists, with the help of this fantastic machine,
to determine the dates of ancient events with unthinkable accuracy,
using the planetary configurations given in the Mahabharata , as
inputs. They have developed so many software for this purpose and to
name a few are: (1) Planetarium, (2) Ecliptic, (3) Lode star and
the(4) Panchang Software.

In 2003, a two day seminar was held on 5th and 6th
January, in Bangalore, on “The Date of Mahabharata War: Based on
Astronomical Data Using Planetarium Software
”, and a few of the
eminent researchers who submitted papers were
(1) Dr. S. Balakrishna
(2) Dr. B. N. Narahari Achar, Department of Physics,
Memphis University, USA;
(3) Dr. R. N. Iyengar, Department of Civil
Engineering, IISc, Bangalore;
(4) Dr. S. Kalyanaraman, Saraswati River
Research Centre, Chennai and so on. These scientists agree that there
does not exist any contradiction between any two descriptions of
planetary configurations given in the Mahabharata.

Dr. S. Balakrishna has studied the eclipses, both solar and lunar,
described in the Mahabharata and tried to find out the dates of those
eclipses using the Lode Star Software. Generally 240 solar and 150
lunar eclipses occur in a century and during the period from 3300 B.C.
to 700 B.C. nearly 6000 solar and 4000 lunar eclipses took place,
though not all of them were visible from India, or to be more precise,
from Kurukshetra. Out of them, 672 were eclipse pairs, or both solar
and lunar eclipses within a lunar month. Dr. Balakrishna studied the
eclipses those have been mentioned in the text of Mahabharata. In
fact, there are mentions of solar eclipses at 8 places in Mahabharata,
out of which three of them are very important. Firstly, the solar
eclipse that is mentioned in the Sabha Parva. The second solar eclipse
which is mentioned in the Udyoga Parva to which Karna tried to draw
the attention of Lord Krishna when He was returning from Hastinapur.
The third important solar eclipse has been mentioned in the Shalya
Parva, that occurred along with two lunar eclipses within a month.
Many believe that there was a total solar eclipse occurred on the 13th
day of the War, which has been allegorically mentioned as covering the
sun by Lord Krishna with His Sudarshan Chakra.

The epic Mahabharata has so many other aspects which
common people do not know. Firstly, the epic as we see it today
containing 100,000 verses was not the creation of Vedavyasa. He
composed what was then known as the Jai, containing only 8,800 verses.
Later on Rishi Vaishampayana enlarged it to contain 24,000 verses
which was then known as the Bharata. Finally Sauti, the son of the
suta (the chariot driver) Lomaharshana, gave it present form as we see
now, containing 100,000 verses.

It has been mentioned earlier that just prior to the
Mahabharata War, a very rare event of three eclipses occurring within
a lunar month took place: a lunar eclipse followed by a solar one and
then another lunar eclipse. According to the text of Mahabharata, the
solar eclipse occurred just 13 days after the first lunar eclipse. Dr.
S. Balakrishna of NASA, USA, has searched all eclipse pairs, a lunar
eclipse followed by a solar eclipse after 13 days, that took place
from 3300 B.C. to 700 B.C., using the Lodestar pro-software. He found
that nearly 672 eclipse pairs have occurred within the said period,
out of which 27 pairs have been found to have less than 14 days time
gap. And according to Dr. Balakrishna, the eclipse pair of 2559 is the
best match with the description given in the text of Mahabharata. But
according to Dr. Kalyanaraman, the eclipses occurred in 3067 B.C.- the
lunar eclipse on 29th September at the asterism Krittika and the solar
eclipse on 14th October at the asterism Jyestha.

Researcher Dr. P. V. Holay examined 6 planetary
configurations given in the Mahabharata and concluded that the War
began on 13th November, 3143 B.C. But Dr. K. S. Raghavan and his
coworker Dr. G. S. Sampath Iyengar, using the Planetarium software
came to the conclusion that the Kurukshetra War began on 22nd day of
November, 3067 B.C. (according to the present Gregorian calendar).
Professor Dr. Narahari Achar of the University of Memphis, USA, also
arrived at the same conclusion using the said Planetarium software.
Dr. S. Kalyanaraman of the Saraswati River Research Centre, Chennai,
found the estimates of Dr. K. S. Raghavan and Dr. Narahari Achar
correct and, on that basis, calculated the dates of some other
important events of Mahabharata.

For example: Lord Krishna, on His final peace mission, set out for
Hastinapur on 26th September, 3067 B.C. when the moon was at the
asterism Revati. Lord Krishna arrived Hastinapur on 28th September,
3067 B.C.
, when the moon was at the asterism Bharani. The full moon
and lunar eclipse at Krittika occurred on 29th September, 3067 B.C.
The solar eclipse at Jyestha occurred on 14th October, 3067 B.C.
Lord Balarama set out for pilgrimage on 1st November, 3067 B.C.
The War began on 22nd November, 3067 B.C.
Lord Balarama concluded His pilgrimage on 12th December, 3067 B.C.
The winter solstice occurred on 13th January, 3066 B.C.
Bhishma died on 17th January, 3066 B.C.
The comet Mahaghora appeared at the asterism Pushya in October, 3066 B.C.

Finally, it should be mentioned that the said seminar officially
accepted that the Mahabharata War began, as mentioned above, on 22nd
November, 3067 B.C.
So it appears that the Mahabharata War took place,
not in Dwapara Yuga but, in the 35th year of the present Kali Yuga. It
is not unlikely because according to the text of Mahabharata, the War
took place at the juncture of Dwapara and Kali Yuga.
Last year, (2005 A.D.), astrologer Arun Kumar Bansal, using computer
software, calculated date of birth of Lord Krishna and it was 21st
July, 3228 B.C.
So it appears that during the Mahabharata War, age of
Lord Krishna was 161 years. At the first sight, it may appear to be
absurd. But it should be mentioned here that, according to Hindu
scriptures, the normal life span of human beings is 400 years in Krita
(or Satya), 300 years in Treta, 200 years in Dwapara and 100 years in
Kali Yuga. In fact, during the Kurukshetra War, most of the military
top brass of both Kauravas and Pandavas were more than 100 years old.

To conclude, it should be mentioned here that the discovery of the
ruins of the city of Dwaraka by the renowned archaeologist Dr. S. R.
Rao, under the Arabian Sea, provides another strong evidence that Lord
Krishna and the story of Mahabharata were a reality and not simply
poet’s fancy.