ARYAN INVASION THEORY : REASSESSING LINGUISTIC EVIDENCES.
One may waste years for trying to find out the basis of the widely publicised dating of the Rgveda ( cir. 1200 BC, ± 200 years). Linguists quote historians and historians quote linguists for this dating. No one bothers to show any proof. For instance, Maxmüller stressed that linguists have discovered irrefutable proofs in favour of the dating of Rgveda, while the most reputed Indo-Europeanist Karl Brugmann plainly quoted a historian A. Kaegi for the dating of Rgveda. A careful examination of the views of Indo Europeanists leads one to believe that the supposedly primitive nature of Rgvedic culture encouraged scholars to put its age at par with those of the primitive Greeks who faught against Troy around 1200 BC. 1200 BC was the earlist date to which European history could be traced in 19th century; before 1200 BC was pure prehistory. But in 1952-3, Michael Ventris,with the help of Chadwick, deciphered the Linear B tablets of Mycenaean Greek, which proved that Mycenaean Greeks ( 1200-1500 BC) enjoyed an urban civilization much before 1200 BC. Hence the pastoral ancestors of these Greeks must be placed at least around 2000 BC . Hence, following the logic of Indo-Europeanists, it seems irrational to put the age of the socalled Vedic culture after 2000 BC. But the pastoral culture of vedic peoples should not have coexisted with the urban culture of Harappans in the same Sindhu-Sarasvati valley. Hence the socalled vedic age cannot be placed after 3000 BC in any case. The proof of Linear B is irrefutable, but Indo-Europeanists do not want to discard their 19th century views. The reason is twofold. Firstly, there is a dearth of experts wishing to devote much time in this field. Secondly, whenever an honest enquiry in conducted in this direction, Vedic language unquestionably proves to be the ancestor of all those languages whose ancient states and linkages are well known . (Unfortunately, IE is the only family with well documented history. Semitic also shows definite proofs of affinity with Vedic or PIE, but the linguistic history of Semitic is not sufficiently documented. Other families are even less documented.) The preponderance of evidences in favour of Vedic repulses biased researchers away from this discipline.
Old Eng : brödor
German : Brüder
OHG : bruoder
Gothic : bröthar
OldNorse :bröther ('th' pronounced as in modern English 'brother')
PGmc : bröthar
(L.Bloomfield) :bröther ('th' pronounced as 'th' in Hindi/Sanskrit)
Russian : brät
Lithuanian : bröter
Proto Slav : brätar
Gaelic : bräthair
P.Kelt : brätha ir
Latin : fräter
P.Gk.Lat.Kelt : bhrätar or bhrätaer
Vedic : bhrätar, root : /bhrätr/
P.IndoIranian : bhrätar
But the second vowel poses some problem. Old English and Gothic show that older form was /o/ or /a/, /e/ being a later development. Oldest form in Slavic is /ru/, which suggests /ur/ < /or/ < /ar/ in prehistoric times. Gaelic and Old Irish show /ai/ and /i/, while Greek shows /o/ in older specimens and /e/ in later ones including classical Koine. On the vowel diagram of Daniel Jones, statistical average of /o/ and /e/ is the central vowel /a/ for Proto-Greek (i.e., etymon of /brother/ must have possessed /ar/ in the end. Seen in this broader perspective, Keltic and Latin forms also suggest a change from /a/ > /ai/ > /i/ or /e/. Karl Brugmann noted that /or/ is older than /er/ in Greek.
In the same way, first consonant is /b/ in Slavo-Germanic and /ph/ in Greek-Latin. Statistically, it would suggest /bh/ in the PIE, which is found in Vedic. Some prejudiced scholars raise doubts over the actual pronunciation of this PIE /bh/, which they imagine to be something like /bah/ with a reduced /a/, instead of like Sanskrit /bh/, which is a full fledged phoneme. Influence of Semitic alphabets upon European scholars is so overwhelming that the same scholar (Winfred P Lehmann, in his Historical Linguistics) writes that the syllabic form of writing used by Mycenaeans was unsuitable for Greek. But truth is just the opposite. Greek was an Indo-European language and Semitic alphabet was quite unsuitable for accurate transcription of Greek (or of any Indo-European language). It is quite probable that the actual pronunciation was /bhrätar/ in ancient Greece , which was written as /phrätor/ or /phräter/ in various dialects due to limitations of the Semitic alphabet.
Let us see how PIE etymons ought to be reconstructed from available derivatives. A self-explanatory picture "VowelsPIE.gif illustrates the simplified version of the statistical method used here in the case of /bhrätar/.
The picture "VowelsPIE.gif" has three parts. In the top portion, you will find the vowel guide to the Received Pronunciation of standard British Engligs ( e.g., of BBC), as a reference to the vowels of this diagram. Then, the reconstruction of PGmc (Proto Germanic) is illustrated. Indo-Europeanists invariably reconstruct PGmc as /bröther/, whereas this author found it more appropriate to reconstruct it as /bröthar/. Old Norse and Old High German show /e/ in the last syllable, whereas OE and Gothic show /o/ and /a/ respectively. Statistical mean is nearer to /a/ than to /e/( here /a/ has been used for the central vowel in order to avoid International Phonetic Alphabet). Gothic provides the oldest specimen and most archaic features in the Germanic group, which are delibaretaly overlooked by Indo-Europeanists in order to prove their theory.
The last portion of this picture file deals with PIE reconstruction. This author placed the last vowel of Proto-Greek in the central region ( i.e ., /a/ and not /e/.), because even Karl Brugmann suggested that /phrator/ was more archaic in Greek than /phrater/). Europeanists would detest this approach, because Classical Greek and Latin is deeply rooted in their Unconscious minds and they refuse to see that /phrator/ was more archaic form in Greek, in spite of a verbal acceptance by their chief spokesman Karl Brugmann.
In the case of /bhrätar/ , the last vowel was invariably reconstructed as /e/ by all major Indo-Europeanists. But even if all IE groups are allocated equal weightage, the last vowel proves to be nearest to the central vowel /a/ than to any other PIE vowel. Statistically, it is slightly raised ( i.e., tongue raised ) due to the effect of /r/ in the same syllable, and it is also slightly fronted ( i.e., front of tongue used ) due to the weight of Latin /e/ and Keltic /i/ and /ai/. Greek shows a clear proof of a drift from /o/ to /e/ ( i.e., phrätor > phrätēr , statistical mean of /o/ and /ē/ being /a/ ), as noted (but neglected) by Karl Brugmann. Keltic (Gælic) has /brathair/, which suggests a possibility of a drift from /a/ towards /i/.
When Saussure proposed this wrong idea, Europeanists were confounded with a deep crisis. When Indo-Europeanism started its journey, Vedic was widely believed to be the ancestor of classical languages of Europe. At that time, facts dominated over ideas. Later, theories were discovered to explain away this unsavoury fact which was disgusting to a Judaeo-Christian culture. Schleicher was the first theoretician to distort the science of language. He proposed a tree model for IE languages, like the taxonomical model of Darwinists. Schleicher found that North European languages belonged to a common set (Slavo-Germanic = Balto-Slavic plus Teutonic), while the languages of southern Europe belonged to another common set. Both these sets shared more affinities with Sanskrit than with each other. But Sanskrit could not be accepted as the ancestor language by a pupil of Hegel who despised the worthlessness of India. Nobody asked why Central Asia was declared to be the Homeland, in spite of the fact that no ancient or modern language of Central Asia was known to have any affinity with IE family in 19th century(until Tocharian was discoverd much later). Linguistic evidences pointed towards India, but India was a colony and a non-European country. Hence regions adjacent to its borders could be declared to be the Homeland. Central Asian Homeland was more acceptable than an Indian Homeland, and therefore Schleicher's biological model became popular.But linguists of Europe were still perturbed, because they were aware of truth, and wanted a purely European Homeland.
Persons like Saussure, Shröeder and above all Brugmann solved this problem of Homeland permanently, and thereafter no amount of fact or reason could compel Europeanists to change their views about PIE. Quest for a Homeland away from India was the driving force behind Indo-Europeanism. Once it was (wrongly ) solved, European scholars put a full stop to further enquiry.
In the example of /bhrätar/, first consonant is /ph/ in Greek and Latin, but /b/ in Slavo-Germanic. Sanskrit /bh/ appeared to be the common meeting ground of the languages of North and South Europe. In an overwhelming majority of cases, Keltic belonged to the southern groups ( although in the case of initial consonant of /bhrätar/, Keltic and Iranian show /b/, instead of expected /ph/ and /bh/ respectively : these being exceptions). This type of linguistic affinities was summarised in the form of the famous Tree Model of Schleicher, which was linked to the Central Asia Homeland Theory.
Very few persons knew that Central Asia Theory was a figment of imagination, Central Asia actually had no proof to offer in those days. Schröeder discovered one set of similarities between Keltic and Germanic(e.g.,-mis instead of -bhis in Case endings), and on account of this single linguistic correspondence Tree Model was discarded in favour of a Ring Model centred around somewhere in East Europe ( around Slovakia ). Indic group was imagined to belong to a small tribe near the modern borders of Romania-Bulgaria. With the discovery of Hittite language, the hypothetical path of migration of Indo-Aryans towards India was transferred from the north of Caucasus to Asia Minor.
Why Central Asia was declared to be Homeland by the proponents of Tree Model, when the evidences on whose basis this declaration was made pointed towards India being the Homeland of Europeans? Again, was not an overwhelming amount of evidences rejected in favour of a single evidence of Schröeder just in order to pull the Homeland towards the borders of Germany ? If perfect objectivity is observed in reconstructions of PIE, as exemplified in the case of /bhrätar/ above, Vedic itself would prove to be the PIE in almost all cases having an adequate amount of data. Although Hebrew is not a member of IE famoly, it is the most archaic member of the sister Semitic family. Hence Hebrew's evidence must be considered in deciding borderline situations. But it was not done. In mid 19th century, Britain's per capita income was nearly six times of that of India. Now the difference is 40-50 times over. Progress of PIE Homeland towards Europe is directly proportional to the growing difference in per capita income of India and Europe. Modern Indo-Europeanists are even more unscientific than their 19th century predecessors, because no unbiased and serious attempt is made to reassess the logic of 19th century linguists. Now-a-days, PIE is often reconstructed without paying any attention to the Indic branch.
This author reconstructed all those PIE etymons for which adequate materials of historical times were available , and found, to his surprise, that in 100% cases Vedic proved to be PIE itself ! As we go back in time, linguistic diversity in India or Europe decreases at a constant pace. At the start of historical era, descendants of Vedic were Präkrit dialects which were spoken by the majority of Indians and understood as far as Mysore and beyond Indus. There is no proof that Indic languages belonged to a minority in India. Ancient Indian literature does not record a single memory of foreing ancestry of Aryans.Yet Vedic is declared to be the language of a small band of European invaders !
The method of linguistic reconstruction described above is sufficient for reconstruction the PIE, provided data from all major groups are procured and pure objectivity is observed. Eurocentricists may never accept this objective method, but it would open the path of a new fruitful discipline : historical semantics, and throw new light upon hitherto neglected or unknown aspects of bronze age civilisations. Archaeology studies inanimate things. Linguistics, therefore, is more valuable than archaeology, but it requires more honesty as well. Language, being the instrument of consciousness, should be studied with the purity of mathematics.
This author was dumbfounded at the conclusion of his 12 year long research. Nobody would believe his findings, because nobody wanted to waste his or her time over the history of so many languages. But honest research is always rewarding. This author was disillusioned about a lot of things. When he came to a firm conclusion that Vedic itself was the PIE, he decided to pursue his enquiries further, searching for the oldest written records of the march of humanity towards civilization in the Vedic texts,for instance, the origin of family, private property and state. He decided that he would not impose later Laukika (worldly) meanings upon Vedic words ( Laukika means the meanings prevalent in society). He found a total of 33 instances of the word /bhrätar/ including all its forms in the Rgveda, and tried to deduce the original meaning of this word from the text itself. In 32 instances it had no relation with this-worldly meaning of 'brother' , and was used for the Sun-god only ! In 33rd, it was used for the son of Sun, Yama Vaivasvat, during a dialogue with his sister. In this 33rd instance, it could be related to both "Sun" and "brother". That is why the best commentator of Rgveda, Säyanächärya, opined that this word might have been derived from any of the two roots 'bhräsh-' ( to shine ) and 'bhr-' ( to bear ).
Aristophanes was a famous Greek comedian of 5th century BC. One of his plays was named 'The Birds'. Its story can be summarised as follows :
In ancient Greece ( ancient by the reckoning of Aristophanes ) Greeks offered oblations (havi) to the gods during sacrifices in the fire. These offerings were transported by fire to the heavens with steam, and gods received their nourishment from these offerings.An old man of Athens instigated the birds to block the path so that the gods could be starved to death. Zeus sent messengers, but the old man put forth insulting conditions for lifting the blockade. One condition was that Zeus should give His daughter/handmaid to the wicked old man. The gods were powerless before this old men and ultimately had to send the daughter/handmaid of Zeus to the old man.
Only 13 years after this play was written Socratēs was poisoned on the charge of instigating the youth against the gods of Greece. But Aristophanes was publicly abusing all Greek gods including the supreme Indo-European god Dyaus-Pitr ( > Zeuspiter > Jupiter in Latin ; in Greek the letter Zeta originally sounded like Dyeta ), and the whole nation enjoyed this play in large open theatres. No one raised a cry against Aristophanes.
The Birds is a proof of the fact that the original religion of Greeks was Vedic. Indo-Europeanists preach that many PIE gods were same as the gods described in the Vedas, but they deny the possibility of Yäjñika-Karmakända (Sacrificial rituals) in PIE period. Yäjñika-Karmakända is declared to be non-Äryan in origin, and India's Brähmanas are said to be of non-Äryan stock. But The Birds describes Yäjñika-Karmakända among prehistoric predecessors of the Greeks. Students of History are taught that originally Äryan religion consisted of simple prayers and rituals of a priestly class was absent among them. Rgveda is said to be a simple book of hymns preceding other Vedas, esp. the ritualistic Yajurveda. This author also believed in these false surmises before he made a first-hand study of the Vedas, trying to decipher the original meanings of the text from the text itself, taking help critically from ancient commentators. All the Vedas profusely refer to each other, and linguistically it is impossible to put the Rgveda before or after the Yajurveda.
Archaeologists,however, do not find ancient remains in the Gangetic Valley , and therefore rule out any ancient civilisation there. Let me show you why.
Many excavations were carried out at a great site in North Bihar , Baliräjgarh, and after investigations the Archaeological Department of India (ASI) reported that this site flourished during BC 150 to AD 600. This author visited this site thrice and concluded that ASI report was incorrect. After repeated questins by a member of Indian parliament, the ASI at last revealed that further excavations could not be carried on due to groundwater. Groundwater is the biggest obstacle in not only the Gangetic Valley but also at sites like Mohen-o-daro in Sind or Heliopolis (=Sun-city in Egypt). In the case of Gangetic Valley, archaeologists deliberately hide this fact and declare that there is nothing below to dig out. ASI is not interested in developing skills for groundwater archaeology.
The key to resolve this issue in the ancient world is scientific linguistics. Socratēs (ē denoted various sounds in different dialects during different ages in archaic Greece) is etymologically related to the Sanskrit word Sukratu, which literally means one who performs the Vedic-yajña well ). Any action which pleases the God or gods is a yajña. Hence, Socratēs performed in accordance to his name. On the other hand, detractors of Socratēs had demonic names. Ari-sto-phanē s (in Sanskrit, Ari-stu-bhan-) means "one who speaks in the praise of the Enemy". No one can be a praiser of his own enemy . Here, Enemy here implies the enemy of God or gods, i.e., the Satan/Devil or Asura. Aristophanes was a Devil-worshipper, and therefore Aristophanes himself was an enemy of the ancient deities of Greece .
Conclusive evidence of the archaicness of the Veda is mathematical. A book on occult Vedic Astronomy has recently been published in Hindi. All major astronomical constants and many unsolved problems of modern science have been deduced from previously unpublished Vedic theorems. Vedic differential equations of moon are shown to be more precise than that possessed by modern scientists. Moreover, the Puränic Mt Meru has been mathematically proven to be same as Mt Kenya on which a city named Meru still exists. European anthropologists show amazement at Sanskrit place names like Meru in Kenya or Kinyangiri in Tanzania, but indologists ignore such anomalies, which cannot be fitted into prevalent racist theories. The connection of ancient Zamboo-dvipa with modern Zambezi (Zambunadi > *Zambudi > *Zambuzi), Zambia, Gambia, Zimbabwe, Mu-Zambique,etc is simply ignored. Surya Siddaanta clearly states that Mt Meru was situated at the equator, but no indologist searched it in Africa. Surya Siddaanta also speaks of Zambunadi in the region of Meru.