Saturday, November 10, 2018

Hinduism’s long history deciphered from the legends of Diwali. Part 1

Published in Ind Samachar

n the wake of cracker ban by the Supreme Court on the entire country, Diwali this year has evoked great interest among people comparing the variants of this festival in different parts of the country spanning over a period of not just one day, but five days, making people wonder which day was referred to by the Supreme Court in its stricture on fire-crackers. With most of South India celebrating Diwali as Naraka Chaturdasi, there is another dissenting voice heard from the fringe political elements in Tamilnadu condemning the festival as glorification of murder, as the story goes that Diwali was the celebration of elimination of Narakasura by Krishna. Those fringe elements had gone to the extent of glorifying Narakasura – without even knowing who he is - in their urge to sully Krishna, the Hindu deity. Analysis of these two issues, the variants in Diwali and the truth about the death of Narakasura brings us to a pleasant conclusion on the very long history and spread of Hinduism across Asia.

Basis of Diwali legends.

Starting of a new life after destruction is the basic theme in the different legends of Diwali celebrated throughout India. A popular version in North India is that Diwali marks the return of Rama to Ayodhya after the destruction of Ravana, while the fact remains that Rama returned on a Pushyami day and not on the day of Chitra or Swati when Diwali occurs. The only justification for this deviation from the original fact could have been the tradition that Diwali marks the ushering in of Light after a period of gloom! So there is something special about the day that even if Krishna’s legend is forgotten, people had felt it necessary to replace it with an olden legend of Rama without checking the veracity of it, only to be in consonance with the importance of the day. This goes to show that there is something cosmologically important for the day of Diwali. The following illustration shows the cosmic position of the day.

The illustration shows two signs in opposite ends, namely Aries and Libra. Aries marks the coming of the New Year in the northern hemisphere of the globe. The opposite holds good for the southern hemisphere, that is, Libra heralds the arrival of the New Year in the southern hemisphere. It is in the month of Libra around the time of the new Moon, Diwali is celebrated throughout India. It is a 5-day festival in its entirety starting from the 13th tithi before the New Moon and ending on the 2nd tithi after the new Moon. Within this period comes the New Year of the southern hemisphere– on the day after New Moon. Wonder of wonders, this is the New Year for only one people of India (northern hemisphere) – that is the people of Gujarat, the land ruled by Krishna!

Doesn’t it sound puzzling that what is rationally the New Year in the southern hemisphere happens to be the New Year for the land of Krishna?

If we probe deeper, we would see that the now discarded Vikrama Era started on the same day as in the southern hemisphere. Its original name was ‘Krita’ or ‘Purva’ Era indicating its origin in antiquity. It was followed by the Mālava gaṇa, whose origins can be traced to the paternal home of Savitri, famous for getting back to life her husband Satyavan from the noose of Yama. Malavi was the name of Savitri’s mother and by the boon extracted by Savitri from Yama, the sons of Malavi came to be known as Mālavas whose location came to be named after them as Malwa. That Mālavas had followed the tradition of the southern hemisphere could only mean their ancestors had their origin somewhere in the southern hemisphere.

The Vikrama Era followed by them can be related to Trivikrama in the legend of Bali, an Asura whose location can be traced to the southern hemisphere. (Usually the inhabitants of the southern parts were known as Asuras while those of the north were known as Devas. Another definition of an Asura is that he is a tormenter). The dominance of Mahabali, the Asura tells of a time when the Southern hemisphere was brimming with life. With movement of Time, the location of life shifts places. This happened when the Northern hemisphere started becoming habitable and the southern hemisphere went under water. This is made out in the story of Mahabali. 

Mahabali initiated Diwali.

The narration of Vamana Purana on Mahabali sounds metaphorical of geological events of land forms experiencing tremors and going under water. Wherever Vamana went –even when he was in his mother’s womb – the land lowered. The lowered land got easily inundated with sea water. After Vamana was born and went on to meet Bali, the same thing happened. When Vamana placed his foot on Bali’s head, Bali sank into Pātāla which is the lowermost layer of the earth’s crust and the covering over the mantle. This is an allegorical description of loss of land into deep sea. The lands were lost to the seas in sudden and violent tremors causing many to lose their lives. The survivors had started a new life with new hope of a bright future.

In the legend of Bali comes the reference to Diwali!  Mahabali asked for a boon from Trivikrama that people make Deepa-dāna for three days in his memory for getting vanquished by three feet measures of Trivikrama. The three feet measures in fact refer to the tremors in the land and in the sky and then again on the land making it sink forever - the last one referring to the loss of habitat for people represented by Mahabali. Trivikrama’s boon that Mahabali would once again come back in a future Manvantra is allegorical of a future probability of the sunken lands rising up again which would then be recognised as Varaha lifting up the lands.  Vamana and Varaha avataras are thus alternating recurrences of two geological phenomena.

The three days starting from the day before the New Moon in Libra till the day after that are supposed to be the time of a massive destruction of a former civilization in the southern hemisphere. That also happens to be the New Year time in the southern hemisphere. The survivors have remembered it in two ways, as destruction of Asuras (of the southern hemisphere) and a beginning of new life and marked it with lighting lamps.

The continuity of New Year Era of the south in India by Mālavas and the people of Krishna’s country is in effect proof of migration of an olden civilization from South and South East Asia and not from Europe or West Asia, as western Indologists want us to believe. Migrations could have happened from Europe at later dates but the original customs and culture had come from the south along with the people who survived destruction. Or else kings from Manu’s times could not be expected to have celebrated the day with Lamps.

In support of this claim, there is an inscription (E.I. Vol 4, No 18) found in the northern wall of the 2nd prakara of the temple of Lord Ranganatha at Srirangam attributed to king Ravivarman of Kerala saying that the auspicious festival of ‘Deepotsava’ aimed at dispersing darkness was celebrated in olden days by kings Ila, Kartavirya and Sagara. Of them Ila was the son of Vaivasvata Manu, the progenitor of the current population of India as per Hindu texts whose name is associated with Matsya avatara. But celebration of Deepotsava by his son is proof of a further past with a connection to southern hemisphere (Mahabali) and subsequent migration to Indian mainland. He had carried the memory of Trivikrama.  One must remember that until 12,000 years ago, India, particularly north India was not habitable due to Ice Age and glaciations of the Himalayas while southern hemisphere was more hospitable for human life.

Newer legends of Diwali from Krishna’s times

As time passed by, newer episodes added fresh impetus to the old concept of Deepa-dāna. All the concepts around the 5-day Diwali except Bali Pratipada (in memory of Mahabali) can be related to a single event in Krishna’s life that happened in a place called Prāgjyothisha, which was originally located in today’s Myanmar and Thailand – known as Indra Dweepa in olden days! That event was the slaying of Narakasura!

This event recounted in Mahabharata and Vishnu Purana sounds more like a geological happening, similar to the destruction of Mahabali by Trivikrama. The etymological understanding of the names further reinforces the geological secret embedded in the event. The story is this:

The city of Prāgjyothisha was held by Naraka, the son of earth (hence he was known as Bhauma). He was fierce and tormented the people killing them often. He kept the two ear rings of Aditi under him, and made it inaccessible to the Devas. Many were imprisoned by him. His deputy, another asura by name Muru defended his city be a series of nooses around that were difficult to cross.

Then came Krishna from Dwaraka along with his wife Satyabhama, mounted on his carrier, Garuda. He entered Prāgjyothisha by clearing the way and making a road. He cut the nooses laid by Muru by his Chakrayudha (discus) and killed many asuras in a place called Nirmochana (meaning Liberation). Finally he killed Naraka and freed the people trapped by him. Then Aditi, the mother of Devas and also of Naraka appeared before Krishna. What she told to Krishna unravels the true purport of the slaying of Narakasura.

Aditi told that when she was held high by Krishna in his Varaha avatar, Naraka was born to her by rising from her. Naraka was given by Krishna and was also killed by him. Her two jewelled ear studs had been restored from Naraka and she was happy to offer them to Krishna to keep for progeny.  What does this all convey? Basically it conveys that Naraka was not a human being! There was some geological trouble happening for a long time which Krishna had stopped. 

To be continued in Part 2


Ganesan R said...

Dear Madam,


In your post on whether Karthigai deepam Tamil festival?, you are mentioning that Vikram

Calendar starts from Full Moon on Karthigai. But on deepavali you are stating that Vikram era starts from New Moon on Thula. Which one should I take?

Again regarding Karthigai deepam I am not getting how it is connected with Northern
Hemisphere Akshaya Trithiya as Trithiya is 3rd day and Pournami is 15th day of lunar
calendar? Pl. clarify.

Thanking you for your wonderful writings,

R. Ganesan

jayasree said...

Dear Mr Ganesan,

I am happy that I have a reader who keenly reads my articles and remembers them too.

The discrepancy in the start date is because when I wrote karthigai Deepam article I had the input from people in Dwaraka whom i met in my trip to dwaraka. They said that their year starts after full moon. That sounds perfect. When I checked at the time of writing Diwali article I found the Wikipedia article saying that new year starts after New moon. On enquiry i came to know that gujaratis celebrate new year after new moon only. I contacted a person of saurashtra origin to get the exact version. He said he had to enquire with others and opined that Dwaraka year is different from general Gujarati year. So I need more authentic info. Wiki article at the time of writing the above article said as what I wrote in the article. I am waiting for authentic info to make corrections.

In northern hemisphere akshaya tritheeya falls when Sun is in Aries and moon in taurus. Here the sign matters. In a reversal when Sun is in the Martian sign of Scorpio and moon in Taurus, it has some significance as karthigai Deepam. it must have had some significance in southern hemisphere too when early vediks lived in southern hemisphere.

By this logic, I have my own doubts whether astrological uccha - neecha etc are applicable in the same way if a person is born in southern hemisphere. Everything is a reverse in the South. So these also must be treated in reverse?

jayasree said...

Dear Mr Ganesan,

Hope you can read Tamil. I have written long ago in Tamil the locations in southern hemisphere, where Pushkar is located. That was the original pushkar. The Pushkar in India is a re- created one of the olden people who migrated from south. This is to show how the early tradition followed in the south were re-done after entering Bharat.

Ganesan R said...

Dear Madam,


I went through your follow-up reply. I am unable to immediately comment as my laptop is not working and in mobile version comments return the home page without getting
published. Be that it be.

As far as Deepavali is concerned, the lighting of lamps signify departure of our
ancestors (pithrus) to Pithru Loka. In sankalpa we say either 'Ashade Panchame Pakshe' which is the Mahalya Paksha in Purattasi (Virgo) sign. If we fail to do Mahalayam in Panchame Paksha, we can do it in 'Asahde Saptame Pakshe' the new moon of which paksha the Pitrus return to their world (Ashade Panchame Pakshe means the fifth dark moon phase counted from Asahda Aadi month). The new moon is incidentally the new moon after Naraka Chaturdasi. This may be the reason why Deepavali is universally celebrated throughout India.

Karthigai may be the new year day in ancient southern hemisphere the Pori and Appam
signfies some Yagna conducted on this Pournami day. The lighting may be to illuminate as a sign of New year celebration. This also answers why Karthigai Pournami Deepam is localised in some parts of India.

I also went through your link to Pushkar article. Present day Calfiornia in US is
Kapilaranyam (Kapila forests) where Sagara's son went in search of horse. As Kapila
opened his eyes a volcano erupted and Sagara were reduced to ashes and due to volcanic eruption the ash may have got disperesed may be in present day Rameswaram as your are writing in 'Asethu Himachalam'. Indeed there is a 'mount of fire' and 'mount of ashes' in California, US. Incidentally California, Gangotri and Rameswaram are in same longitude. California as Kapilaranyam was confirmed by Sage Paramacharya of Kanchi also.

Thanking you for your wonderful writings,

R. Ganesan

Ganesan R said...

Dear Madam,


I wish to bring to your attention the recent news report that occupants of 'Sentinel Islands' in Andaman islands are cut off from the rest of the world.

As per Pandit former Anthropoligical Sruvery of India Official who made a landfall long ago in the island the language they speak was unidentifiable even to the rest of Andaman islands tribes.

Are they speaking Pali or Tamil?

Thanking you,

R. Ganesan

jayasree said...

Thanks Mr Ganesan for your valuable inputs.

My thoughts:-

1. Originally Deepavali was associated with Bali following the destruction of his regions. It was a poignant time in remembrance of the loss of land and people and the deepa could have meant to be Moksha deepa. But the story goes that it signifies 3 steps of Trivikrama. The New Moon coming in between those 3 days is time for pitru tarpan that you highlighted through the sankalpa mantra (thanks for the same). That was not a day of celebration but the other two are. The universality of Diwali is not exactly about tarpan on New Moon as Tarpan days are not meant for celebration, but some other customs which I wrote in the 2nd part on Narasura.

2.I too strongly think that Full Moon after Deepavali (Karthigai Full Moon) must have been the New Year in southern hemisphere. The Brahmins of Dwaraka temple told me that their New Year starts on the day after the Full Moon of Karthigai. But in the absence of concurrence from any other source I am restrained from writing it again.

3.Karthigai deepam was very popular in old Tamil lands. That feature also must be incorporated in any understanding of the importance of that day.

4. The sagara episode was detailed in my Tamil article here
When we trace the route given by Valmiki it goes up to Rameswaram only. There is a fissure in the region of Setu near Rameswaram.
California's mound of fire must be researched on the basis of whether any similar fissure or tectonic edge runs there.

5. The Americas were never in the world map of ancient Vediks. Check out my articles on Udayagiri and Asta giri

6. I have not looked into Sentinel tribes. Going by their life style I would say that they must have been cannibals and therefore were never approached by any. So no chance of their language resembling Pali or Tamil. Cannibals are mentioned in the route map somewhere, I have check if it is in Mahabharata or Ramayana description.

Ganesan R said...

Dear Madam,

Thanks for your reply.

In my post 'mound of ash' and 'mound of fire' may be corrected as ashland and
mountainland respectively which are still found in California.

May be Sage Paramacharya's comments may be that names of these places also bear similiarity to characters in Ramayana. As America became hospitable, people may have settled there and named these places after their epic Ramayana.

R. Ganesan

Vasundhara Venkatasubramanian said...

It now seems a no brainer that Bali padyami is celebrated in Karnataka during the 5 day Deepavali festival. Anyways, this brings me to an interesting question on why should Keralites celebrate returning of Bali on Onam day and not on the same day as Bali Padyami.

jayasree said...

Valid question Ms Vasudhara.

Only Bali Padyami was the oldest, going by the inscription I quoted in the article. Onam-Bali celebrated in Kerala is residual of Sangam age Onam festival, that was an important festival in Vishnu temples, celebrated on the birth star of Vishnu (Acchuthan - in Periyazhwar pasuram). The underlying legend was His victory over Mahabali, that transformed with time into newer legends of Mahabali and had stayed in Chera lands while completely forgotten in other two Tamil kingdoms. I have a plan to write on historical Mahabali and his origins in Sundaland.