My 5-part paper establishing the concept discussed in this article can be read HERE
My recent article in First Post on this topic: Conflict between Archaeo-astronomy and Astronomy reveals new understanding of the Equinoxes
The sun crosses the equator twice a year from north to south and vice versa. This point is defined as the intersection of the ecliptic (the apparent path of the sun which is actually the projected path of the earth around the sun) and the celestial equator which is the projection of earth’s equator into the celestial sphere. The intersecting point (equinox) is supposed to be moving backward or westward. According to the theory of precession of the equinoxes, this backward motion is perceived due to the continuous change in the axial tilt of the earth. That is, the axial tilt of the earth is supposed to make the sun at the equinox, appear at different points gradually over a period of time.
Some 2000 years ago, Aries was sighted at the backdrop. This gradually shifted backwards, by which the equinox coincided with the star Revati (Zeta Piscium), and now at the beginning of Uttara Bhadrapada (Algenib), at 6 degrees of Pisces (Sidereal zodiac). This movement happens at the rate of approximately 72 years per degree of the visible sky, at the current rate of precession.
One of the visible proofs of test for this movement is that the structures built long ago aligned with the equinox should not appear with the same alignment. Interestingly we do come across many ancient structures aligned to the equinox or solstice points of today.
To begin with let me show the Gopuram (tower) of the Padmanabha Swamy temple of Tiruvananthapuram, India, which attracts many people on equinox days, because the sun on the equinox day can be seen exactly crossing the middle of the Gopuram.
Many people glorify this as an archaeological wonder of the ancient builders. Had they built it exactly to align with the equinox of the day (400 + years ago), how is it possible that we continue to see the same alignment today also?
As per the axial precession theory, the equinox cannot be sighted at the center of the tower, if it was built aligned to the equinox of the day. If the alignment continues to be the same, it means that the equinox occurs at the same point of the ecliptic year after year, and for all the years since long. It then means that there is no change in the axial tilt of the earth, or the earth’s angle with the sun. Then what causes the precession of the equinox needs some other explanation and not the idea, that axial precession of the earth is the cause. If the earth’s axial tilt is changing which is what the current precession theory proposes, then we should not be seeing the equinoctial alignment of the tower of the temple today.
Not only Padmanabha Swamy temple, there are other temples in India and many ancient monuments across the globe, built during different time periods in the past, but are found perfectly aligned with the equinox of today. There is no way to say that they are coincidental or made to give a spectacle for the 21st century people, i.e. us. Before I proceed to present them, I want to highlight that this perfect alignment is proof of ABSENCE of axial precession of the earth, a fact that has been recently noticed by a section of the scientific community while assessing the lunar data here, here and here.
It is understood that there is no change in the tropical equinoctial date in the Gregorian calendar. The spring equinox always occurs on 21st March (or 20th to 21st March). As per precession theory this date must have drifted by 5.9 days since the inception of Gregorian calendar 420 years ago, but is found to be occurring on the same date. The only adjustment done is with reference to the leap year. The days on the orbit of the earth are constant such that the equinox comes back on the same date.
The difference is with reference to background stars which is the basis of Vedic astronomy and time keeping. There can be only one explanation for the equinoctial sun coming to the same point in the sky of the earth but the background star -studded space appearing to move forward (by which the equinoctial sun is seen in front of successive westward points in space) and that explanation is that the sun is like a moving train with the background trees seeming to move in the opposite direction. This movement is not caused by the inmates of the train (us / the earth, in this analogy), but by the movement of the train (the sun).
The annual shift noticed of the equinoctial sun in the backdrop of the stars is mistaken by western astronomy as being caused by the trepidation of the earth, whereas we coming from the background of Vedic astrology are originally taught by our teachers that the sun is moving! Thousands of years of observation by this society had taught us that the equinoctial sun moves to and fro in the backdrop of stars – the clarity about the frame of reference, that modern science is yet to recognize.
This movement of the sun in the backdrop of the stars with the internal alignment with the earth kept intact is shown in the following illustrations. The picture below shows the vernal equinox around 2k years ago, aligning with Asvini. Note that the alignment between the earth and the sun remained the same.
A 1000 years after that, the background star was different, but the earth’s alignment with the sun remained the same and the vernal equinox had occurred around 21st March only (pic below)
The same trend continues at present too. (pic below)
When the background star is taken as the frame of reference, precession is noticed. In the absence of axial precession of the earth, the movement in the backdrop is possible if the entire solar system is precessing. As the sun keeps moving across the space along with the solar system, the background stars are drifting in the opposite direction which is perceived as backward motion of the equinoctial sun.
The alignment between the earth and the sun had remained constant for all ages. This is proven by the numerous monuments of the old that are aligned to the equinoxes and the solstices till date. There is no substance in claiming that such monuments were built 24k years ago on the basis of the 24k precession cycle. The dating concept based on precession is redundant as per this realization that the earth’s axial tilt is not changing which implies that the earth is not behaving like a spinning top or a gyroscope – a concept that is the basis for 24k year precession. Further details on the Vedic concept of equinoctial movement can be read in my paper HERE.
Astronomical alignment of ancient monuments not changed.
The fact that we are able to see the equinoctial sun pass through the Gopuram of Padmanabha Swamy temple is by itself a proof for the absence of axial precession of the earth which further indicates null scope for the luni–solar influence on the earth for precession.
The constancy of the date is applicable to any other date in the year around the sun. For example the temple at Abu Simbel built by Rameses II between 1279 and 1213 B.C to celebrate his domination of Nubia, has his image carved at a place such that the sun light falls on King Ramses II’s face exactly on two days in the year, on February 22, marking his coronation, and on October 22, marking his birthday. (picture below) This is being sighted for thousands of years since he built it in this way.
This is proof of the fixed dates of the Gregorian calendar and also the fixed alignment between the earth and the sun such that the sunlight or sighting the sun at a particular location in the sky never changes. This is proof for the absence of axial precession of the earth. If the earth’s axis is drifting, the dates will change for the above phenomena and for the equinoxes. The above information on Abu Simbel was taken out NASA site, that is to say that NASA had recognized the alignment, but yet to declare in the open that this is possible only in the absence of the concept of axial precession for the earth.
I came across a justification in this site for the equinoctial alignment at the Mayan pyramid of Kukulcan (Chichen Itza) that it is ‘PRECESSIONAL CLOCK WITH ITS ALARM SET FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY’!! Why should the Mayan toil to work out an astronomical alignment that can be visible only after 1000 years? Mayans were not alone in this kind of alignment there are many other similar ones.
NASA had highlighted the Kukulcan phenomenon as follows. (Read here)
Watch the video here:
For more than 1000 years, this alignment had not changed. Without realizing this, we continue to believe that the earth’s axis is precessing.
Closer home, look at Angkor Wat temple built at 12th century CE. On the day of equinox, the sun rises exactly touching the central tower. Can anyone claim the time of construction of this temple to 24k years ago as per the current theory of precession cycle?
The next one I want to highlight is the famous Stonehenge at Great Britain. The same NASA site has the following to say.
As per this version this was built between 3500 to 5000 years ago. In the 18th century it was noticed that the sunrise on the day of the summer solstice aligned with the center of this structure. Now 200 years after this observation, the solstice must have moved upto 3 degrees, that is away from the centre, but what do we see now?
The alignment continues to exist and people gather to see the sun sink or rise at the same central part in-between the two pillars. How is this possible if not for the absence of precession?
The next one I want to highlight is the same phenomenon at Mnajdra temples of Malta, in the Mediterranean. I have a big story for this temple in a future video of my Indic Past series. For now let me point out the equinoctial sun lighting up the center of the entrance while the solstices illuminate the two apses of this structure believed to have been built in the 4th millennium.
Graham Hancock wishes to push the date to the previous cycle of the precession circle –which if accepted would be found wanting in an explanation for the same phenomenon in other places including the Padmanabha swamy temple built 400 years ago.
Another place highlighted by the NASA site is the pre-historic Chaco Canyon in New Mexico showing similar astronomical alignment.
Today the equinoctial sun can be sighted exactly at the east and west doors of the structure. (Picture below)
The sun light on the solstice day cuts the spiral design engraved on top (Picture below).
There are many places that one can catch up from the NASA site. I am just showing a few more before winding up this topic.
The main structure of Grianan of Aileach of Ireland, built in 6th or 7th century CE is a ring-fort in stone, aligned with the equinoxes. The equinoctial sun light exactly passes through the entrance and the sunlight cuts the arena into half as shown in the figure. What would you say about this - made to entertain the 21st century people or a natural phenomenon that exists for ever without any change?
Finally I want to highlight the 7 Ahu Akivi statues of the Easter Island. Stanford essay states that these statues built around 1460 CE are so located that they exactly face the spring equinox while their backs face the autumn equinox. The link features too many other similar locations of astronomical alignment.
Coming to India, I am of the opinion that many of the south Indian temples must have been aligned to the equinoxes (tropical) though for all practical purposes we follow sidereal point for equinox. The reason for the tropical alignment can be traced to the Vaastu principles in following ‘exact east’ (Shuddha PrAchi) for building temples and houses. The ‘exact East’ doesn’t change! Temples like Chakrapani temple at Kumbakonam that has Uttarayana and Dakshinayana entrances, must have been aligned to tropical positions. Trees and houses surrounding many temples hamper any observation of such alignments.
The above samples must make people think and come to the realization that the precession concept of the west is at the verge of an overhaul. Anyone attempting to ‘date’ ancient texts such as Mahabharata and Ramayana cannot rely on the western astronomy simulators that use axial precession concept.
My research paper on Siddhantic concept of the equinoxes offers newer insights to emerging trends in Science on Precession
Three orbital cycles of the Siddhantic concept (Part 2 of my paper on Siddhantic concept of precession)
Sidereal representation of oscillating equinoxes (Part 3 of my paper on Siddhantic concept of precession)
Sun’s movement – a determinant of precession and the Band of Tropical limits (Part 4 of my paper on Siddhantic concept of Precession)
Siddhantic cycle of precession matches with the paleoclimatic data (Part 5 of my paper on Siddhantic concept of precession)