Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Tamil new year at AvaNi?

An article in support of change of Tamil new year to Thai.

by V.Thangavelu, President Thamil Creative Writers Association

is given below.

I have already covered all the issues raised in this article barring one .

The writer says that Nacchinaarkiniyar, in his
commentary to Tholkaappiyam says that
Tamil New Year started in August

(Aavani) and ended in July (Aadi).

This is great news because the ritualistic yuga of

the Rig Vedic Pancha Varshathmaka yuga

(browse my blog for details on this in my earlier posts)

started on the New moon of Avani (full moon in Dhanishta),

that is on AvaNi avittam!

This also marks the beginning of Brahasptaya mana –

the cycle of Jupiter around the zodiac containing 5 rounds of 12 years.

Brahaspatyan mana is the cycle in vogue in Vedic society

which was followed for ritualistic purposes.

There were many systems of cycles of time in India.

Each one was evolved with a purpose

backed up by some astronomical purport.

I will soon write extensively on all the ‘mana’(measurement of time)

that were in vogue in this country.

Of these Brahaspatya mana started on the new moon day of Avani.

But the solar revolution was followed to compute time

from the very beginning of creation , from kalpa.

The entry of Sun into Aswini was given importance

due to a more relevant reason

of keeping up time

because the Mahayugas begin when all the planets along with the sun

enter Ashwini.

The Kalpa ends when all the planets enter Ashwini.

Entry into Ashwini is like starting the clock at cosmic level.

If as Nacchinaarkiniyar has said that the Tamil New year began on avani,

that is clear proof of a vedic culture in vogue in the Tamil society.

With Avani avittam, the year began and continued

with learning of Vedas for the next ayana, till uttarayana started.

This period marked the low key period on material life

but high key period on spiritual life.

With the start of Uttarayana, (in Thai)

it was time for loukeeka matters (materialistic life)

which reaches its peak in Chitthirai

with all temple festivals arranged at that time coinciding with the peak of Sun.

‘Thai neeradal’ as the article says

is about conclusion of vratham (penances) by girls who expected to be married.

But ‘Kumari-p-punal aadal’ of sangam times

in kumari river in the sunken land of kumari

which later became ‘vaigai-p-punal aadal’ in Madurai

were about taking dip in rivers in Chitthirai!!

What does Thangavelu or Karunanidhi say for this?

What ever they try to say to ‘invent’ an exclusive Tamil culture,

will end up as fool’s talks.

Anything of this land of Tamils is also of Vedic origin only.

No one can prove anything otherwise.

Another issue raised in that article is that Vikrama epoch and

saka epoch were about cycles initiated by kings.

Any student or researcher in astrology knows that it is about events in astronomy.

Vikrama epoch is about the ecliptic meeting of the celestial equator at zero degree Aries.

It coincided with the formation of a rare equilateral triangle

of joining of Ashwini, Magam and Moolam

on the day of initiation of that epoch.

It was called as Vikrama,

reminding of Thrivikrama avatara touching the heavens at Aswini

by his second step.

Further corrections were noted by astrologers a little later

that saw the ushering in of Salivahana epoch,

which most of astrological community

accepted as the date of zero degree Aries.

But researches done recently further pushed that date forward.

As per Lahri, it was 285 AD.

The reason for the differences is due to the

varying values of precession of equinoxes.

computed at various times by experts.

For instance, the annual precession computed by

Parahsra was 46.5 seconds,

By Bhaskara – 59.9 seconds

By surya siddhnatha – 54 seconds

By Varaha mihira – 50 seconds

By Krishna moorthy (recently) – 50.2388475 seconds.

By accurate computation of today the precession is 50 seconds only.

The cause for these differences must be analysed.

The differences in speed may have been there from time to time.

Perhaps those differences have been incorporated as sandhi

in arriving at the total duration.

For instance at the current calculation of precession,

the sun will take 26,000 years to complete one revolution around the zodiac.

But texts say that the period is 28,800 years.

It is based on this only,

that the 60 year cycle exists as the basal unit.

With ascending and descending phase of this,

it makes 60+60=120 as human life.

But longevity in Vedic period was only 100 years.

That means the computation of the revolution of the sun

around the zodiac must have been based on 50 year cycle.

50+50 making 100.

This 100 times 100 making 10000 is one half of the cycle.

The total duration must have been 20,000 years then.

We must remember that an extra star, Abhijit was also part of the zodiac then.

The speed, the circumference of the zodiac and ecliptic

must have been different then.

But in this Kali maha yuga,

Abhijit is no longer part of the zodiac.

The precession takes a longer time to complete one revolution

around the zodiac or around the pole star.

Today the basal unit is 60 years.

60+60 = 120 is the life span of man.

(read details in my earlier posts

on Vimshottari dasa that includes Rahu-ketu)

120 times 120 makes it 14400 years.

The double of it makes it 28,800,

marking the completion of one cycle around the zodiac,

which means a circumambulation of the sun around the dhruva star.

Thus it goes..

- jayasree

An article in support of change of Tamil new year to Thai.

by V.Thangavelu, President Thamil Creative Writers Association

Opposition has been voiced by a small bunch of individuals who are Hindus against the change in the birth of Thamil New Year. They claim the change is against tradition and borders on blasphemy. Such people are superficial and naive in many ways.

The opposition can be seen as an ad hominies argument you cannot fault an argument, so you fault the person advancing it. In this instance Chief Minister M.Karunanidhi! He is reviled by Hindu bigots like Thuglak Chow, Ramagopalan, Ela Ganesan (BJP) Ms Jayalalithaa (ADMK MLAs voted for the bill) and few others as anti-Hindu.

Strangely, the editor of the TamilNet website in his myopic arrogance and ignorance also joined the anti-nationalist force to whip up frenzy against the change. Thus making a mockery of the decision of the de facto state of Thamil Eelam that endorsed Thai first as Thamil New Year!

The Thamil Nadu government gave legal status to the observation of Thai first (January 14th) as the beginning of Thamil New Year which will be called Thiruvalluvar Aandu. In an unprecedented act of solidarity, the bill was unanimously passed by the TN State legislature.

The accusation the TN government has arbitrarily and suddenly made the change in regard to the New Year is not supported by facts. Only half-baked illiterates do so. Thamils need a continuous year count like the Christians or Muslims. They need to discard foreign culture and beliefs imposed on them under the guise of religion. Way back in 1921 Thamil scholars like Maraimalai Adikal, Naavalar Somasundera Bharathiyaar, Prof. Parithimaakalaignar (Prof. Sooriya Narayana Shastri) K.Subramaniyapillai, Thiru V.Kalyanasundera Mudaliyar, Saivait scholar Sachchithanadapillai, Naavalar Na.Mu. Venkadasamy, K.R.P.Visvanatham and scores of others met at Pachchayappan College and resolved to make Thai first Thamil New year instead of Chiththirai.

In order to have a continuous year count the birth day of Thiruvalluvar was taken as falling on Thai (Suravam) first. This was given effect by the TN government in 1971 in official calendars, from 1972 in gazettes and from 1981 in all
departments. Later it was extended to non-governmental departments as well.

In the Indian civil calendar, the initial epoch is the Saka Era, a traditional era of Indian chronology that is said to have begun with King Salivahana’s accession to the throne and is also the reference for most astronomical works in Sanskrit literature written after 500 AD. In the Saka calendar, the year 2002 AD is 1925.

The other popular epoch is the Vikram era that is believed to have begun with the coronation of King Vikramaditya. The year 2002 AD corresponds to 2060 in this system.
The Calendar Reform Committee set up India’s present day national calendar in 1957. It is a lunisolar calendar, which has leap years coinciding with the leap years of the Gregorian calendar. The months in the calendar have been named after the conventional Indian months. This calendar came into effect with the Saka Era in Chaitra 1, 1879 (March 22, 1957).

Although we don’t have direct evidence of Thiruvalluvarr’s birth day, this day has been chosen with reference to available (indirect data) from Sangam and post-Sangam Thamil literature.

The opposition to the change in the Thamil New Year from Chiththirai to Thai mostly emanates due to a lack of proper understanding of astronomy. Added is the natural tendency to resist change.

The Earth has three types of motions: motion around its axis, motion around the Sun, and motion of its axis due to wobbling of Earth. The Earth rotates around its axis in 24 hours, which causes day and night. In the Northern Hemisphere we see that all but one of the stars and planets rise in the east and set in the west. The one star that does not rise or set is the polar star (Dhruv Nadchchathiram or Polaris), which is located directly above the Earth’s North Pole. The Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees on the plane of orbit around the Sun. This causes changes of seasons during the year.

The seasonal changes have nothing to do with star or planets as widely believed by Astrologers and Almanac casters.
The second type of motion is the rotation of the Earth around the Sun in 365 days to complete one revolution in an elliptical orbit. Using modern instruments for exact observations of the universe, the Earth takes 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 9.50 seconds to complete one revolution with respect to the stars (sidereal year). With respect to the orbit, it takes 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.50 seconds to complete one revolution (tropical year). The difference in time is 20 minutes and 24.00 seconds as follows:
Solar year,

Sidereal year,365.69Difference,20m.24.00s.

This difference is caused by the third type of motion of Earth, the wobbling of its axis, which astronomers call processional movement (precession of equinoxes) of the pole or axis of the Earth.

The ancient Thamils lived in close touch with nature. Astronomy and astrology very much influenced their lives. With regard to the year, the Thamils started it with the Vernal Equinox. Astronomers have determined the sun transiting Aries at 0 degree as the Vernal Equinox, that is the day when the sun rose exactly in the east, coincided. This was about the year 285AD. With the lapse of centuries, the New Year falls now, about three weeks after the Vernal Equinox. The Hindu solar year is sidereal, and since it is in excess of the tropical year by 20 minutes and 24.00 seconds, it does not keep step with the seasons. The seasons fall back one and half days for every hundred years or one day every 71.6 years.

It is not correct to say that Chiththirai has always been the beginning of Thamil New Year. Nachchinarkiniyar who wrote a commentary to Tholkaappiyam says Thamil New Year started in August (Aavani) and ended in July (Aadi). This demonstrates the fact that Aeries (Medam) is not the start of the reference point in the Zodiac during Tholkappiyar’s time.

The Thamils/Hindus divided the year into “Uttarayanam” the first six months after the winter solstice and “Dhadshanyam” the second six months after the summer solstice. The former was considered health-giving, bright period for man and animals for during that period the days became longer and longer.

Thus “Uttarayanam” was celebrated by Thaipongal and Paddippongal (the cattle festival). Most of the temple festivals in the Thamil country were also fixed for this bright period. The beginning of the “Dhadshanayam” was marked by “Adipirapoo” (July 1-Hindu calendar). These six months were considered not a very bright period for men and animals because the days became shorter and shorter.
One of the major drawbacks in counting Chiththirai is that it is not a continuous year. Its cycle consists of 60 years. This cycle of years is useless to record historical events. And their (so are some of the months) names are not Thamil. They are in Sanskrit.

The mythological story attached to the birth of the years is extremely vulgar and obscene. As usual with Hindu mythologies a perverted mind must have invented the story.
A close look at the six seasons given in Thamil literature reveals that they are out of sync with the actual seasons experienced at the equator.

Ilavenil Kaalam : mild sunny period : Chithirai, Vahasi - Thingal
(mid April to mid June)
Muthuvenil Kaalam : intense sunny period : Aani, Aadi - Thingal
(mid June to mid August)
Kaar Kaalam : cloudy rainy Period : Aavani, Purataasi - Thingal
(mid August to mid October)
Kuthir Kaalam - cold period : Iyppassi, Kaarthihai - Thingal
(mid October to mid December)
Munpani Kaalam - early misty period (evening dew): Maarkali, Thai Thingal
(mid December to mid February)
Pinpani Kaalam - late misty period (morning dew): Maasi, Panguni Thingal
(mid February to mid April)

Definitely Mid June to mid-August is not the rainy season in Northeast of Ceylon or Thamil Nadu. They are in fact hot and humid months. The rainy season is from October to November (Iyppasi to Kaarthikai) and not from mid August to mid October.
The coolest months are December - January (Maarkali - Thai). It is in January (Thai) the farmer harvest the first sheaves of a harvest. They are grinded and mixed with old rice and used for Pongal. The actual harvest season does not take place in January. It takes place in February and March. This is due to change in seasons due to precession.
January 14th too has astronomical significance, in that, the Sun (Earth) commences its Northerly transit.

In fact there are four (not three) transits of significance by the Sun in its journey from south to north and north to south. They are:
Winter Equinox-March 20/21
Summer Solstice-June 21
Autumn Equinox-December 22
Spring Equinox-March 20/21

This is true only in regard to the Northern hemisphere. It will be the exact opposite of those living in the Southern hemisphere. When it is summer in the Northern hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern hemisphere. So in regard to spring and autumn.
As already mentioned, the arrivals of the seasons have been changing at the rate of 1 degree per 71.6 years. Westerners found spring coming earlier (March 10) than the Julian calendar showed viz March 21. To adjust the extra days Pope Gregory ordered the deletion of 10 days i.e. October 5th was followed up with October 15th. The Gregorian calendar still has a few seconds difference. But the calendar can hold good fairly accurately for the next 1000 years!

Due to the precession of the equinox, the Sun will be at the 1st degree of Libra at the spring equinox in 11,232 years! Those who think that almanacs and calendars are cast in iron should mark their calendars! The zodiac of the two systems (Tropical and Sidereal) will be exactly opposite one another! Ayanamsha will be 180 degrees 0 minutes!! It would be interesting to those who oppose Thamil New Year shifted to Thai first to incarnate at that time just to join in the debate!

In Vedic or Sidereal astrology the calculation of the Sun passing through the 1st degree of Aries is marked by the Sun actually passing through the observable fixed stars making up the constellation Aries and has nothing to do with the seasons. Because of the precession of equinoxes at a rate of 50.26 seconds per year, .difference between the tropical zodiac and sidereal zodiac increases every 10 years by 8 minutes 22 arc seconds.
The Thamil/Hindu calendar has gone awry and no correction was made for precession of equinoxes. This is the reason why the real seasons are not synchronizing with months mentioned above. Poet Subramanian Bharathiyar has pointed out this discrepancy in one of his essays.

Those who claim that Chiththirai New Year ushers in Spring (Venil) has to re-think. It really falls on March 21st! A good 24 days earlier. So are all the Hindu auspices festival and ceremonial days.

The “wobble” and the precession of the equinoxes were known to the Ancient Egyptians, although the first official “discovery” of it was made by an Ancient Greek astronomer, Hipparchus, who was born sometime around 190 B.C. It was noted because the Sun was in a slightly earlier position at the time of the Spring Equinox each year (as measured against the fixed stars). Because the movement slips backwards (Westwards) through the zodiac, it is called precession (as opposed to a forward-movement which would be called progression).

Now 1 every 71.6 years doesn’t sound like too much, but it certainly adds up over 2,000 years or so, and this is where we get into the different Zodiac systems.
The determination of Thai first as Thamil New Year is now a fait accompali. One cannot unscramble a scrambled egg! History is heavily stacked against intellectually discreditable individuals for they live in the past!

The change of Thamil New Year has not altered or modified the Panchangam or Thamil Almanac as some foolishly think or argue. What has changed is the reference point (in a circle any point could be considered the reference point) in the Zodiac. Instead of Aeries 0 degree being considered the birth of Thamil New Year, the reference point has been shifted to Makaram 0 degree the birth of Thamil New Year!
There is reference in Thamil Sangam literature to the celebration of Thai Neeradal, but there is absolutely no reference to Chiththirai New Year in ancient literature!
The shifting of Thamil New Year from Chiththirai first to Thai first is a milestone in the history of Thamils.

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Thiruvalluvar Aandu - what Karunanidhi does not know of Thiruvalluvar!

Despite opposition from the people of Tamilnadu,

Karunanidhi has gone ahead with passing the order

that the 60 year cycle (with Sarvadhari having just started) must be dropped

and from now onwards only Thirvalluvar aandu must be mentioned

along with Christian years in all official and administrative correspondence.

Only a person who has no inkling of the science of ‘mana’ (measurement) of time

can pass such an order.

Only a person who has no grasp of the cultural past of India – the oldest in the world –

can pass such an order.

Only a person who has no respect for democracy can pass such an order.

Above all,

only a person who has no knowledge of Thiruvalluvar can initiate Thiruvalluvar aandu!

If only he knows who Thiruvalluvar was,

I bet he would not even turn to his side,

not have built a kOttam and a statue for him.

It looks like an irony of Fate that Thirvalluvar is getting a pet treatment

in the hands of Karunanidhi!!

I wonder what he will do if he comes to know that Thiruvalluvar was a parma vaishnava,

one who worshiped none but Rama, his bete noire!

And this is exactly what was true of Thiruvalluvar.

Thiruvalluvar’s origins and background had been quite an enigma

but it is possible to unearth the face of him from his work.

One of the intriguing ones is that

whether he had any particular god in mind when he wrote

the first chapter on God (kadavuL vaazhtthu).

There are indeed some clues to unravel this mystery.

Let me go step by step.

There is an overwhelming evidence his book, Thirukkural,

that Thiruvalluvar promoted Vedic religion only.

The very arrangement of the book into 3 divisions (muppaal)

is a vedic concept of Purusharthas, dharma, artha and kaama.

He left out the 4 th division, Moksha, because

adherence to the principles of the first 3

will automatically elevate one to Moksha or

Liberation from the cycle of life and death.

The compartmentalization of the ‘adhikaras’ into the mystic number 108

for Dharma (aram) and Artha (poruL)

also is indicative of a definite plan to present his book

on the vedic notion of spirituality.

The choice of the term, ‘Adhikaram’ itself for the chapters

is indicative of the vedic practice of Yatho-desa paksham –

which means the spread of control / influence by itself and its own sake,

that is, the message of Kural will spread by itself the message of Purusharthas.

The positioning of adhikaram, ‘voozh’ (destiny) after dharma (aratthu-p-paal)

is also demonstrative of a Vedic influence.

How-much-ever dharmic one may be,

one can not stop or escape from the interference of ‘oozh’ or destiny

is the message given at all ages,

from Gita onwards (one has control over one’s actions only, not on the results)

to Silappadhikaaram (oozh vinai urutthu vandhu ootttum)

and this has been aptly given as a finale for Aratthu-p-paal by Thiruvalluvar.

The only source book he quotes for all rules is the ‘nool’

The ‘nool’ that he often speaks in kural is the Vedas

and he has repeatedly glorified the ways the ‘Saandror’ or Aryans.

(read my post on

Brahmins (anthanar) and Vyakarana sastras (725)

are the respected ones he looks at,

for any reference to acts of dharma.

Devas and their habit of receiving Havis from humans are often mentioned by him.

He disapproves animal sacrifice in yajnas but not yajnas themselves,

giving indication of his leanings towards vedic practices

and his willingness to usher in modifications –

which is what sages too had said for kali yuga.

The Vamana avatara is clearly mentioned in kural 610

where he tells that the king must be like “ulagu aLandhaan”,

Vamana in conquering worlds.

He makes a veiled mention of Rama’s valour in kural 773

for showing mercy to the enemy in the war field when he is down in spirits.

Most important of these is his veiled reference to Rama

in his opening verse.

Thiruvalluvar begins his book with a worship of god.

The Akaara Brahman is indicated in his very first verse

as also the Bhagam (6 qualities) of Bhagavan – a vedic concept.

Akaara Brahmam is equated to Vishnu in Bhagavad Gita.

Beyond this there is something also.

He has indicated his God – ishta devatha in this verse – ‘agara mudala..’

It has been a practice in ancient times

for the poets to reveal their God or Lord or the Lord of the song (paattudai-th-thlaivan)

in their first verse as a puzzle.

Thirvalluvar too had done that.

These ancient norms of poetry indicated in Tholkaappiyam were aimed

at spreading and preserving the greatness of the Lord or God

who had been praised by the poet.

The praise of the Lord to live long can not just be empty words

but it also must incorporate certain features

that help in making the Lord and his name immortal.

We come across such norms of Tholkappaiyam explained in Choodamani nigandu, as sutras

and when I attempted to apply these rules to Thirukkaural,

I am in for a surprise.

Thiruvalluvar indeed had followed these ancient norms

and had indicated his Lord, his Ishta devatha as Rama!!

One will be surprised to know that these norms were in tandem

with certain rules of astrology, meant for longevity and greatness!

In 12-31 (“I-vagai sthaanam for seyyuL”) of Choodamani nigandu is like this.

This is about the sthanas.

A person is said to undergo 5 stages of life, such as

Bala (infant)

Kaumara (boyhood)

Youvana (youth)

Vriddha (old age) and

Marana (death)

These are known as 5 sthaanas.

In astrology, each house / rasi (constellation) is divided

into these 5 sthanas also known as avasthas

and predictions depend on the position of a planet in the sthana

Even is a planet is exalted, if it is placed on, say, marana sthana / avastha

(the degrees indicating death), the planet can not bestow the results of its exaltation.

That planet is as good as dead.

That is the implication and interpretation.

Therefore this sthana-bala was given prime importance by ancients,

even in poetry.

Their rule of poetry is that the lord / god of the Poet

must be indicated in the first verse.

But that indication must happen in the favorable sthaana or position.

Of the 5 sthaanas, the first 3 are about growth, a period of happiness.

So the norm was that the name of the Lord must be indicated in the first 3 sthanas.

If indicated in the last 2 sthanas (of old age and death)

the poet’s work would not stand long in spreading the name of his lord.

The Sutra in Choodamani nigandu says

that the poet must indicate the first letter of his lord

in the first 3 letters of the first verse of the poem.

But it must be given as the shortened one, if the letter has deergha swara.

That is if the letter is ‘nedil’, its complimentary ‘kuril’ must be used.

“baalanE kumaran mannan padu muthir kizhavan saavu

kOlundhan pEr ezhutthu kuritthadu mudalaaga-k-koLga

yElu mun ezhutthu moondrum inbham pin-irandum theedhaam

saalu moovagai seer thane saatriya kavidahikki inbham.”

(bala, kumara, mannan (king), old man and death.

Fix the first letter of your lord as a shortened swara (kuril- ezhutthu) in these.

The first 3 are good. The last 2 are bad.

Fixing the letter in the first 3 is a happy beginning for the poem)

Applying this to the first verse of Thirukkural,

Agara mudhala –

we have to look into

‘agara’ only, that has three letters, a, ga, ra.

All these are ‘kuril’ only.

The Lord of Thiruvalluvar must begin with any of these 3 only

and that letter could also be ‘aa’, ‘gaa’ and ‘raa’,

reduced into ‘kuril’.

Now the next rule is given in 12-102 of Choodamanu nigandu

as “seyyuLukkuriya nakshathram”. (the star of the poem)

“thanadu naaLil pinnaLum saarnthiru naalum aarum

vinaviya ettu vonbaanum viruttham vondrillai thanaaL

iNaiya moondrudan aindhaa naaL yEzhaa naaL ivai porundhaa

ninaiyum im-moondru vonbhan yErpadu moondru vattam”.

As per this rule, the poet must indicate the letters of those stars

which are 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 9th from the birth star of the lord

counted in 3 rounds of 9 stars for all the 27 stars.

The 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7 th stars from the birth star of the lord are not advised.

This means the poet must begin the poem with the letter that are indicated for the stars

that are 2 nd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 9th from the birth star of the Lord.

In Vedanga Jyothisha, each star is assigned some letters

which one can refer from the almanacs.

The poem must start with the letter of those stars that are 2nd, 4th, 6th , 8th or 9th from the

birth star of the Lord, counted in groups of 3 covering all 27 stars.

The Kural begins with ‘a’.

“a” is the letter for the star krittika.

If we look at probable stars that come in that order mentioned above,

we get Punarpoosam (punarvasu) as the star of the Lord.

Krittika is the 6th star from Punarvasu in the 3rd round of 9 stars.

Punarvasu is the birth star of Sri Rama.

The ‘ra’ in agara is the 3rd letter which is the kuril of ‘raa’ of Rama.

This is place at “maanan” sthaana as per the Sutra of Nigandu.

This also stands for Youvana – youth immortalized in verses.

This means the poetic work as well as the Lord of the poet

will live for ever.

The second rule is to start the poem with letter of the star of Rama’s star group.

It is done.

The poem starts with ‘a’, the star of krittika

which is 6th in the 3rd round from Punarvasu.

Thiruvalluvar has followed this ancient rule of poetry writing

and has succinctly indicated his Ishta devata as Rama.

Needless to say

he went on to incorporate the Brahma-tattva

in the very first verse itself

in akkaraantha Brahman and Bhagavan.

The only other god that he has mentioned in his work

is Lord Vamana.

What an irony of Destiny

that an avowed hater of Brahmanic and Vedic culture,

promoting one whose book is nothing but Vedas in Tamil

(Tamil marai, uttara vedam are the other names of Thirukkural)

Such a devotee of Rama and follower of Vedic ways,

is being resurrected by none other than Karunanidhi,

to demonstrate his Tamil leanings.

If only Karunanidhi is sincere in his love for Thiruvalluvar,

let him first close all Tasmac shops (liquor shops).

Only then he would get the blessings of Valluvar who was dead against drinking.

Particularly when the liquor shops are run by the government

and the government shamelessly boasts of increasing the liquor sales

in the excuse that it is being used to augment the expenses

for buying Colour TVs for the poor,

Thiruvalluvar would not like to have anything to do with him.

He would not live in any kottam or statue or aandu that

Karunanidhi proposes .

Next issue is that

Karunanidhi must stop meddling with years and

instead revert to Prabhavaadhi cycle of years.

Only then he could get the blessings of Thiruvalluvar.

Of all the people Thiruvalluvar could not have tolerated

the scrapping up of the prevalent system of years and New year.

He is one who sticks to ancient practices.

By scrapping the existing years, Karunanidhi is

causing irreparable loss

to the ancient body of knowledge.

Already we lost many ancient treasures, due to negligence and ignorance.

To state an example, we know about the 60 years

starting from Prabhava from Surya siddhantha.

But the Siddhnatha talks about them in the context of Brahaspatya mana

-of the rounds 5x12=60 years of Jupiter, that start from Vijaya of this cycle.

The start of Soura mana with Prabhava is yet to be located in the texts.

Though we have information that this 60 year cycle of the sun

undergoing 3 stages of 20 years , of superior, medium and inferior kind of results,

we are still trying locate the source that tells about the origins of this cycle.

All clues lead to Prajapatya mana that describe manvantharas,

that might have contained information on yuga classification

on the basis of precision of equinoxes,

starting from Prabhava

But that knowledge seems to have been lost.

Today, by dropping the cycle of Prabahva etc,

Karunanidhi is committing a grave blunder -

a blunder that will be not forgiven by destiny for un-doing the existing knowledge.

The future generations are likely to lose all knowledge about this

as how we have already lost most treasures of the past.

Another issue is that

Thiruvalluvar himself would not have allowed the switch over

to this Thiruvalluvar aandu,

for, he was not born at that time that Karunanidhi and his coteries say that he was born

and he would have been dead against changing the age old system

which was based on sound principles of astronomy

and measurement of time.

The irony of sorts is that Karunanidhi is promoting a core Vishnu-bahkta,

who has indicated his Lord as Rama in his wonderful book of Dharama-artha-kaama

in a beautiful way in conformity with the norms of poetry writing.

The mockery of sorts is that Karunanidhi who had no qualms in writing preface to a work

that said that Thiruvalluvar copied from Christian thoughts

(a so-called research work by M.Deivanayagam, “Thiruvalluvar Christhuvara?”

-“Was Thiruvalluvar a Christian?” had the preface written to it

by none other Karunanidhi),

should promote Thiruvalluvar’s name for Tamil / Hindu years.

The sad state of times is that

if Thiruvalluvar were to be born again,

he would be given a SC status!!

Valluvar and Thiruvalluvar are scheduled castes according to Tamilnadu govt.

What a beautiful service these people are doing to Thiruvalluvar’s memory!!


Monday, April 28, 2008

From Adicchanallur to Sembiyankandiyur burial urns - It is Vedic practice only.

The burial urns have been unearthed in Sembiyankandiyur.
These urns contain bones (not skeletons) of dead people.

Similar findings are also there from Adichanallur

According to T. Satyamurthy, Superintending Archaeologist and
Director of the dig at Adichanallur,
the urns and surrounding pots conform to descriptions of ritual in
Tamil Sangam literature – 'Manimekhalai', 'Natrinai', 'Raditrupattu'
and 'Purananuru'.
The remains of cremated bodies were placed in a burial urn, the mouth
of which was covered by inverting another urn over it. Smaller pots
strung around the 'twin-pot' burial urn contained personal possessions
of the deceased - ornaments or weapons - together with offerings like
paddy or grains.

This may be termed as a practice unique to Tamils.
And it will also be argued that Tamils were different from Aryans or
rest of India culture.
but it is not so.

Burying the incinerated bones of the cremated in pots is very much
Vedic in origin.

This is part of the post-cremation ceremony,

called Pithru-medha ceremony.

The Gruhya sutras of Asvalayana describes

the details of how this

ceremony is done.

As per this, the incinerated bones are collected and deposited in urns
in separate pots designed for males and females.

There are some excavations reported in Indus-sarawad excavations of
such urns bearing male/ female figures.
Similar ones are being excavated from Tamil nadu from time to time.
These are nothing but proofs of the prevalence of the Pithru-medha ceremony
authorized by Gruhya sutras.
This is again a strong proof that Tamils followed Vedic practices only.

Here is a note on this practice a described by texts.

Post cremation Burial (Pitr-medha)

During the Vedic and early Grhya periods it was common to bury the
incinerated bones of a deceased person in an urn.

This was the
pitr-medha ceremony.

The Grhya-sutras of Asvalayana describe how the burned bones were to
be collected on the third lunar day (tithi) after death.

In the case of a man who had died, the bones were to be collected by
elderly men
and placed into a male urn.

In the case of a woman, the bones were to be collected by elderly women
and placed into a female urn.

Urns were designed by their shape to be male or female.
The performers of this ceremony were to walk three times in a
counterclockwise direction around the bones
while sprinkling milk and water
from a particular kind of twig (sami).

The bones were then placed into the urn as they were picked up individually
with the thumb and fourth finger.

First the bones of the feet were to be gathered
and then successively the other bones were to be gathered working
toward the head.

After the bones had been purified and gathered they were sealed and
buried in a secure location.

By the end of the Grhya period the practice of burying bones in an urn declined.

For full details, browse this link.



Sembiyankandiyur megalithic pottery with graffiti marks

Megalithic period pottery found

T.S. Subramanian (The Hindu, April 27, 2008)

Tamil Nadu Archaeology Department leads excavation

— Photo: M. Srinath

Significant finds: Pottery with graffiti marks found at
Sembiyankandiyur village in Nagapattinam district.

CHENNAI: Pottery items including bowls, dishes and urns, from the
Megalithic period, have been excavated at Sembiyankandiyur near
Kuthalam in Mayiladuthurai taluk of Nagapattinam district by the Tamil
Nadu Archaeology Department.

An important finding: eight urns aligned in a particular manner, three
of them with human bones inside. These might be of members of one
family, according to department officials. The pottery included
black-and-red ware, black ware and red ware.

The site yielded a rich collection of pottery with graffiti marks. A
few iron pieces were also found.

Archaeology Department officials estimated that the pottery belonged
to the Megalithic period or the Iron Age, which can be dated between
300 B.C. and A.D. 100.

Earlier discovery

The discoveries were made at the site where in 2006 school teacher V.
Shanmuganathan found a polished Neolithic celt (tool) that had
engravings resembling the Indus script. This celt caused a stir in
archaeological circles. It was T.S. Sridhar, then Special Commissioner
of Archaeology, who noticed the engravings on the polished celt. A
semi-polished celt was found nearby without engravings.

The Archaeology Department decided to excavate the Sembiyankandiyur
site to find out its antiquity and fix the chronology. The excavations
began on February 6. Four trenches were laid at the place where the
celt with the engravings were found. The first trench was laid in the
garden of Mr. Shanmuganathan, the second trench at Thoppumedu which
belonged to Shanmugam, a retired physical education teacher, another
in the backyard of the house of Muthappa and the fourth at Padayachi

Important findings from the trenches were bowls, dishes, broken urns,
full-size urns and so on. Eight urns were found to be aligned in a
particular manner, three of them with human bones. Some urns had
ritual pots inside. Some pots and sherds have thumb-nail impressions
on them.

Designs and markings
Full-shape pots had the graffiti depicting a fish, a 'damaru', sun,
star and a swastika. Geometric designs and marks depicting fish, sun
and star and graffiti marks are often found on black-and-red ware and
black ware, with the symbols sometimes repeated.

The excavations at Sembiyankandiyur were done under the guidance of
Dr. S. Gurumurthi, Principal Commissioner of Archaeology; Dr. S.
Vasanthi, Archaeologist; M. Muthusamy, Curator of Tranquebar Museum;
S. Selvaraj and P. Gowthamaputhiran, Archaeological Officers of
Thanjavur and Coimbatore respectively.


Adichanallur excavations.

17 March 2004
Urn-burials at Adichanallur

100 years after an urn-burial site was first excavated by an amateur
British archaeologist the Archaeological Survey of India [ASI] has
resumed digging at Adichanallur in Tamil Nadu. To date, 20 burial urns
have been unearthed. The burial site, a huge mound, is close to a lake
on the southern bank of the Tamiraparani. Painted pot sherds, black
ware and red ware found near the urns date from the megalithic period,
1000 BCE, to the 1st century CE, and from the early historic period
which continued up to the 6th century CE. The sherds include hundreds
with beautiful designs and graffiti, superbly crafted pot spouts and
tiered knobs from pot lids. One sherd had a twisted rope-like design
running around it.

According to T. Satyamurthy, Superintending Archaeologist and
Director of the dig, the urns and surrounding pots conform to
descriptions of ritual in Tamil Sangam literature – 'Manimekhalai',
'Natrinai', 'Raditrupattu' and 'Purananuru'. The remains of cremated
bodies were placed in a burial urn, the mouth of which was covered by
inverting another urn over it. Smaller pots strung around the
'twin-pot' burial urn contained personal possessions of the deceased -
ornaments or weapons - together with offerings like paddy or grains.
The archaeologists are hoping to find grain and other organic material
(bones, wood or charcoal) that will assist Carbon-14 dating.

The site was first brought to notice by Dr. Jagor of Berlin in
1876. Amateur British archaeologist Alexander Rea, who excavated the
site for a few years from 1900, described it as "the most extensive
prehistoric site as yet discovered in southern if not the whole of
India. It covers an area of 114 acres, within which burial urns were
found, at some places close together and at others more widely apart."
Rea's results were published in the ASI's Annual Report for 1902-1903
under the title 'Prehistoric Antiquities in Tinnevelly'. According to
Rea, the several thousand objects found at the site and inside the
burial urns included finely made pottery, iron implements and weapons,
bronze vessels and ornaments, gold diadems, bones, stone beads and
stone household implements, together with traces of cloth, wood and
mica. "Husks of rice and millet were found in quite a large number of
pots inside the urns."

The aim of the current excavation is to investigate the site
thoroughly and establish its chronology. Another aim is to discover
whether there was a habitational site nearby. Burial sites were
commonly part of settlements. The Adichanallur site's location close
to a lake is similar to that of the urn-burial site at Mangadu in
Kollam district. Dr. Satyamurthy, who carried out the excavation at
Mangadu, says: "The burials found at Adichanallur show the trend of an
earlier phase, such as coarse pottery and hand-made pottery. So that
the date of Adichanallur may even be earlier than that of Mangadu."
Scientific analysis using C-14 or the archaeo-magnetic method may
confirm dates prior to 1000 BCE.

Source: The Hindu (14 March 2004)

Being Hindu is not communal!

In India, anything that is Hindu or vedic will be instantly branded
as Communal.

Sandhya Jain has exposed this hypocrisy in her review of Dr Chakraborthi's book,
"The battle for ancient India"

The concluding part of her article interested me:-

"All people of the subcontinent are heirs of the Indus civilization.
It links the deep south through the find of a polished celt with
incised Harappan script signs near Cuddalore, and several sites with
antennae copper swords of the upper Gangetic Valley copper hoard type
as far as Ramanathapuram in Tamil Nadu and a tea estate in Kerala.
Above all, it is not easy to note any non-Indian tradition in the
figure of the Sramana from Mohenjodaro or any other sculptural relic
of this civilization."

This is now an accepted fact.
But where we differ is how this mix-up happened.
The One Aryavartha following the one Sanatana Dharma
made this happen.



Pioneer-BookReview- 27April2008

Return of the Vedic Saraswati : Sandhya Jain

Dilip Chakrabarti derides the tendency to reduce historical debates to
slogans of 'secularism versus communalism', writes Sandhya Jain

Dilip K. Chakrabarti: The Battle for Ancient India . An Essay in the
Sociopolitics of Indian Archaeology. Aryan Books International, New
Delhi , 2008. Price: Rs. 390/0; pp. 173.

As water-starved Haryana urges the Oil and Natural Gas
Commission for drilling machines to rediscover the paleo channels in
which the once-mighty Saraswati may be flowing silently, it may solve
one of the most vexatious issues of Indian history. Plagued with water
disputes with Punjab and Rajasthan, the state where Sri Krishna gave
the famous command to do one's duty, may soon unravel the truth of a
river once hailed as 'best of mothers' and more lately mocked as

Colonial Indology and its modern avatars may soon face a reality
check. Dilip Chakrabarti takes this negative legacy head on in his
latest work, deriding especially the tendency to reduce debates to
slogans of 'secularism versus communalism'. On the Aryan Invasion
Theory (now Aryan Migration Theory), he argues that the history of
ancient India must be judged in its own terms and no claims of
externally inspired diffusion of its cultural development be made
unless there is strong supportive evidence and the hypothesis can be
justified in clear geographical terms.

Chakrabarti notes that when Dayaram Sahni went to excavate Harappa in
1920, the abundance of pre-historic Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and
Neolithic remains, including Neolithic settlements in the south, and
the 'Copper Age' was known. Any perceptive archaeologist would realize
India had a pre-historic civilization before its documented history,
especially in view of the occurrence of seals with unknown writings
and art-style at Harappa . It was known that ancient India had a long
history of trade and commerce with different countries, including
Egypt , in the second millennium BC. Unfortunately, the theory about
Indian 'races' and languages and the myths of Aryan and Dravidian
invasions were invented before the Bronze Age Indus civilization was
discovered; hence the finds at Harappa and Mohenjodaro had to fit into
an entrenched paradigm.

In 1924, John Marshall reported that in the third millennium BC or
even earlier, the peoples of Punjab and Sind lived in well-built
cities with a mature culture, developed arts, crafts and pictographic
writing. He was clear this civilization developed in the Indus Valley
itself, and noted its possible religious ambience, mentioning R.D.
Banerji's finding of a tank at Mohenjodaro which he felt was a
charanamritakunda, "receptacle for the holy water used for the washing
of the sacred image." At Harappa , archaeologists found a small mound
suggestive of an image shrine, though it is difficult to say if image
worship existed then. Chakrabarti says this is a hint to seek
reflection of the Indus religion in prevailing rituals of Hinduism.

R.P. Chanda created the confusion about the builders of Harappa and
Mohenjodaro and the Rig Vedic Aryas. He believed the Indus
civilization was both pre- and non-Vedic. Yet Chanda also tried to
view the Indus civilization within the framework of Indian tradition
by identifying its yogic tradition as the root of one of India 's most
important spiritual dimensions; he also realized indebtedness of the
Buddhist and Jaina traditions to the Indus civilization. Mortimer
Wheeler formalized the Aryan invasion to explain the demise of the
Indus civilization in 1947, and the idea acquired hegemonic status in
academia though convincingly disputed by B.B. Lal (1953) and G.F.
Dales (1964).

P.V. Kane examined the relationship between the Harappan civilization
and Vedic Aryans in his Presidential Address to the Indian History
Congress in 1953. He argued that as Mohenjodaro and Harappa were major
cities, "the remains of dead bodies would have been found on an
enormous scale" in the event of an Aryan attack, and not limited to 26
skeletons at Mohenjodaro! The cities could have been deserted because
the rivers on whose banks they stood shifted. Kane compared the
internal evidence of the Rig Veda and excavated evidence of Indus
settlements and found reverence for water and the Pipul tree in both.
Regarding the occurrence of bulls on Indus seals, he noted that the
Rig Veda referred to Indra and other gods as Vrishabha (bull).
Astronomical references in the Rig Veda and Brahmanical literature
suggested that the Rig Vedic people were earlier than the Indus Valley
people, but as the evidence was meagre it was best not to dogmatise.

Tackling the festering dispute over the horse, Chakrabarti says horse
bones have been identified in and before Harappan contexts by
competent professionals like B. Nath of the Zoological Survey of
India. Moreover, Harappans could have imported horses from central
Asia as Shortughai was on the border.

The Cholistan archaeological survey showed the course of the
Ghaggar-Hakra denoted the core area of origin of the Indus
civilization, prompting S.P. Gupta to coin the term Indus-Saraswati
civilization, as Ghaggar-Hakra denoted the Saraswati riverbed.
Scholars challenge the view that the Rig Veda describes only an
agricultural- cum-pastoral society. Bhagwan Singh has listed various
crafts and professions, navigation, overland trade and commerce,
housing and urban centres; while R.S. Bisht has shown that Dholavira
was divided into three distinct parts: upper, middle and lower,
corresponding to the Rig Vedic parama, madhyama and avama.

Chakrabarti argues that as the spread of this civilization was not
limited to the Indus valley, there is no justification to call it the
Indus Valley civilization; Marshall called it the Indus civilization.
While Indus-Saraswati civilization does better justice to its sheer
extent and the role of the Saraswati in its genesis, it does not cover
the whole territory; hence he favours Harappan civilization. Moreover,
in the current political context, Indus Valley civilization gives it a
Pakistan twist. What refreshing candour.

Chakrabarti concludes that the archaeological sequence of all areas
covered by Indus civilization sites shows no break in any relevant
area, or any evidence of new cultural inroads which cannot be
explained geographically with reference to the Oxus-Indus-Pamir-
eastern Iran political and economic interaction sphere. He feels the
Harappan tradition tempered with unidentified regional elements laid
the roots of the entire cultural development of the upper Ganga plain,
given that the antennae swords of the Gangetic valley copper hoards
have been verified as belonging to the Harappan tradition.

All people of the subcontinent are heirs of the Indus civilization. It
links the deep south through the find of a polished celt with incised
Harappan script signs near Cuddalore, and several sites with antennae
copper swords of the upper Gangetic Valley copper hoard type as far as
Ramanathapuram in Tamil Nadu and a tea estate in Kerala. Above all, it
is not easy to note any non-Indian tradition in the figure of the
Sramana from Mohenjodaro or any other sculptural relic of this