Friday, July 30, 2010

Tholkaapiyar tree (World Tamil Conference series 15)

Recently a 500 year old tree popularly known as Marutha maram in Tamil was given a special name as 'Tholkaapiyar tree", following the conclusion of the World Tamil Conference.

Tholkaappiyar tree

This name was preferred because the tree was quite old, similar to the antiquity connected to Tholkaapiyar and also because the place where it is found is connected to Tholkaapiyar. This tree is found in Kanyakumari district, where Tholkaapiyar was born, say the authorities. (The news item is given at the end of the post).

How they arrived at the conclusion that Kanyakumari was Tholkaapiyar's birth place is a question. When we look up at the olden commentators such as Nacchinaarkiniyar, we get the information that Tholkaapiyar was the son of Jamadagni of North India. His original name was Thrunathhoomaagini, (த்ருனதூமாகினி), a Sanskrit name. He came to the South, to Tamilnadu along with his teacher Agasthya. This is what we get from the commentary to Tholkaapiyam, paayiram by Nacchinaarkiniyar.

The Dravidian lovers do not want this information. Any information that does not satisfy their Dravidian thoughts is rejected as racist or as a result of Aryan mentality. I will write a separate post later on one such paper presented in the Conference.

In the current post let me write on this tree.

This tree is botanically known as Terminalia arjuna.

The popular name of this tree in North India is Arjuna.

This tree is supposed to be the favorite of Sita.

This tree is remembered for Krishna's connection.

As a kid, Krishna crawled in between two Arjuna trees with the grinding stone tied to his waist. As a result the trees broke down and the cursed Gandharvas trapped in the tress were released.

This story is found in Srimad Bhagavatham and Harivamsam.

The interesting information from the Indus civilization is that Dr E.J.H Mackay who excavated Mohanjodaro between 1927 and 1931 discovered a steatite tablet depicting two persons holding a tree and a tree god extending his hands towards them. He considered this as the famous Krishna in yamalarjuna-lila.

(Mackay's report part 1,pp.344-45,Part 2,plate no.90,object no.D.K.10237 -

I tried to locate the image of this tablet in the websites of IVC but could not get.

If this tablet depicts Krishna, it is a strong proof of IVC as post Mahabharata or post- Krishna.

In this context, I wish to analyze the Arjuna tree.

This tree is found where there is underground water current.

In Mahabharata Arjuna was asked by Bheeshma lying on the arrow-bed to fetch him water in a fitting way.

Arjuna shot his arrow on the ground from which water gushed up and fell on the parched throat of Bheeshma.

This shows that Arjuna had identified an underground spring and pierced it with his arrow.

Such identification was done in olden days by means of some symptoms. One prominent symptom is tree.

"If there is an anthill to the north of the Arjuna tree, there will be a water-current at the distance of 3 cubits to the west of the hill and at the depth of 3 men and a half", says verse 12 of Chapter 54 of Brihad Samhitha.

It is possible to assume that Arjuna identified the underground water by a nearby Arjuna tree and shot the arrow with the force required to reach its source.

Perhaps the tree got the name Arjuna due to this episode.

The relevant information for this post is that the knowledge of identifying the underground water by means of the nearby trees was given by a sage named Saraswatha!

The river Saraswathy was on the decline even before 3000 BC, the period of Krishna.

The Dwarakans were forced to migrate due to loss of their city to the seas.

Though they went to the Indus initially (refer previous post in this series), they were forced to move to the east of Indus and seek watery patches on the banks of Saraswathy. The sage who gave the knowledge to identify the water sources along the Saraswathy perhaps got a name as Saraswatha.

Most of the trees he mentioned are seen in many parts of India.

But there is one exception.

It is the Peelu tree. Peelu tree is generally found in dry and desert regions, in coastal and inland saline soils. It grows in regions where the annual rainfall is less than 200 mm. Sage Saraswatha giving the clues for locating water by means of this tree can be largely applicable to coastal regions or desert regions. The deserts of Rajasthan and coastal regions in Gujarat have Harappan settlements.

The people might have identified the water bodies using Peelu tree as an indicator.

In my opinion, the flora of the IVC regions must be studied to know if the people chose their settlements using this wisdom of ancient India.

In all probability, I guess so.

This knowledge was there widespread throughout India.

Water bodies were identified by means trees and ant hills.

The quality and quantity of water was also known to them.

For example, in the case of Peelu, there will be more salinity in water.

Near Arjuna trees, the water will be tasty.

Near Kapittha (விளா மரம் ) and Jambhoo (நாவல் மரம்), the water body will be huge and perennial and tasty as well.

It is perhaps to safeguard the water bodies from pollution, snake gods and Ganesha were established under these trees.

Lord Ganesha is offered Kapittha and jambhoo phalam.

This makes the people safeguard these trees.

These trees can not be destroyed.

They give valuable clues on the availability of water.

Wherever they are found, the ground can be dug to get water.

Our land is known as Jambhoo dweepa, owing to the growth of Jambhoo trees in abundance.

This shows there must be available plenty of underground water at many places.

The peepal and banyan trees also indicate underground water.

According to Saraswatha, if banyan, palasa and udumbara are seen to grow together, there will be plenty of water under them.

If banyan and pippala grow together, the water current will be to their north. (54-96, Brihad samhitha)

Tamil nadu had a number of water bodies until recently.

Number of tree side or water-side shrines of Ganesha and Snake gods were there in Tamilnadu.

This perhaps helped in keeping the water bodies clean.

We had many water bodies until the time of Independence. Almost three fourth of them are now gone.

Habitations have come up in those areas which have only aggravated the misery.

Even though those places are raised, the earth underneath is connected with underground veins that carry the rain water collected at some other place.

During rains these areas will be stagnated. This is what we are seeing various parts of Chennai.

Our ancestors in Sangam period did not spoil the ground nor destroy the important trees.

The land of Marutham got its name from the abundant growth of marutham / arjuna trees.

Marutham tree was identified as the symbol of Marutham land.

That could mean that people were not supposed to destroy this tree.

The growth of this tree at a place helped them to dig a pond or a tank to supply water to the fields.

Sangam texts make a mention of the water-body close to the marutham trees.

Here are some verses on Marutha trees.

Young girls used to climb the marutham trees situated on the banks of waterways.

They used to sit on the branches of the tree and sing.

In such posture they resemble peacocks on the trees

"துறை நனி மருதமேறி" ( Pathtrup patthu 27)

An ancient city was situated on the banks of a waterway with Marutham trees

"துறை நனி மருதத்திறுக்கு மூதூர்" ( purananuru 344)

The fresh waters of the flooded waterway hits down the Marutham tree on banks.

"தேம்பாய மருத முதல் படக்கொன்று வெண்டலைச் செம்புனல் பரந்து வாய் மிடுக்கும் ." (Pathtrup patthu 30)

The fields by the side of marutha trees.

"மருதம் சான்ற மலர் தலை விளைவயல் " (Pathtrup patthu 73)

The river with the marutham trees on its banks.

"வரு புனல் வையை மருதோங்கு முன் துறை" (Silappadhikaaram 14-72)

Thus we find that wherever this tree is mentioned, the nearby waterway is also mentioned.

Here comes the verse on Krishna breaking the Arjuna tree.

"மருதின் நடந்து நின் மாமன் செய் வஞ்ச

உருளும் சகடம் உதைத்தருள் செய்குவாய் " (silappadhikaaram 12)

From all these it is deduced that the knowledge of the importance of this tree was known to Tamils.

The knowledge that this was the tree that was broken by Krishna in his Yamalarjuna lila was also known to Tamils.

The flora and fauna had been more or less same throughout the country.

The knowledge about them and use of them was common throughout India in olden days.

There had been exchange of knowledge between different parts of the country.

The Tamils had known, so also the Indus people and others in other regions of India.

What applies to this tree applies to animals also.

In this context I wish to make a special mention about cocks that Dr Iravadham had analysed and deduced that the name of the Cholan capital Kozhi (later known as Uraiyur) was due to Indus / Dravidian influence.

I don't agree.

Like trees such as Marutham, there are certain animals like cock, dog, cat, bull, crow etc which are found commonly throughout India.

The similarity in names having connection to them can happen independently of an outside influence (here Dravidian influence on Tamil)

Let me discuss it in my next post in this series.



Dated 17-07-2010

The 500-year-old tree, terminaliaarjuna, commonly known as neermaruthu, at Eshanthimangalam, in Kanyakumari district, will henceforth be known as Tholkappiyar.

As part of the conservation programme of this species of trees that is on the verge of extinction in Kanyakumari district, the forest department, along with the Indian trust for cultural heritage, organised a formal function Friday in which district collector Rajendra Ratnoo christened the tree, which is the oldest of its kind in the district, as Tholkappiyar.

The name, according to the district collector, was selected for this oldest tree to make the tree a symbol of forest conservation programme in the district as the name Tholkappiyar represents the classical Tamil language. Moreover, this part of Kanyakumari district is believed to be the birth place of Tholkappiyar, the first grammarian of Tamil language.

This particular tree, found as a single giant on the banks of the canal at Eshanthimangalam, is 150 ft high and has great medicinal value. These trees were commonly found here but were cut off for construction purposes.

Thursday, July 29, 2010

Prohibition – Karunanidhi batting strong.

Two news items in the front page of the newspaper today made a striking reading.

One says that Tendulkar hits a Test Century

Another says that Karunanidhi hints at Prohibition!

Karunanidhi's is a master stroke – which not even Ramadoss would have expected.

He has a different strategy when Ramadoss is at the other end.

If it is Jayalalitha, he would have merely reeled out statistics from Jayalalitha's tenure comparing how he has given more benefits than her to the TASMAC employees.

So if it is Jayalalitha at the other end, our kudi- magankal (the addicts) need not worry about prohibition.

This Ramadoss stuff is tricky. He has no previous record that Karunanidhi can use to compare and contrast. All his agitating points are watched keenly by Karunanidhi and usurped in time. He does not want Ramadoss to score a point over him.

This hint at prohibition seems to be one such instance of snatching away Ramadoss's agenda.

This will be debated by all political parties in the coming days.

There is scope to suspect that this is knee jerk reaction fearing loss in the elections.

Karunanidhi's earlier decision of removing Prohibition in 1971 had traces of such a knee jerk reaction.

The trigger event at that time was an announcement by the Central government that it would give subsidies to augment the loss of revenue to those states which impose Prohibition.

Karunanidhi wanted the subsidies to be given to the states where Prohibition was already in force. When the Centre did not concede his demand, he removed Prohibition, on the pretext that he would re-impose Prohibition once the Centre started giving the subsidy. He enacted his decision immediately without even waiting for a debate in the Assembly which was not in session at that time.

But this time I don't consider this talk as a sudden or knee jerk reaction. From 1971 to 2010, Karunanidhi has come a long way in tackling adversaries. He does not make statements without due thought.

Moreover Karunanidhi of today is keen on only one thing – Praises.

In the scheme of Karunanidhi's hierarchy of needs, he has achieved everything he had wished for. He is saturated at all levels, except one. He is not yet satisfied with the Names, awards and Praises.

Perhaps Bharat Ratna is a pending honour in his wish list.

His arch rival MGR was awarded Bharat Ratna – posthumously.

Karunanidhi would like to better MGR's record on that account.

Nowadays he seems to be always in the thought of doing something big or great that will earn him an everlasting name. He is saviour now, a compassionate person, having goodwill for all and hatred towards none. His appearance in the same stage along with the Brahmin scholar Velukkudi Krishnan is a ploy to tell the world how he is not against Brahmins and theists but against Brahmaneeyam and Theism. This Karunanidhi is different from the Karunanidhi we have known all these years.

Perhaps he is eyeing for the Bharat Ratna within his life time.

What else can qualify him for that than the re-imposition of Prohibition in today's conditions.

There is another way of looking at why Karunanidhi spoke about imposing prohibition.

Is it because he is worried about losing elections?

I don't think so.

He has brought the people to a stage where they are not expecting freebies from him.

Hard cash lures them!

He has that hard cash in plenty.

If one third of the voters accept this cash, he can win the elections.

One third of voters of Tamilnadu always remain as a section that gets carried away by film attraction, heroes and freebies in cash or kind. The trend in the past elections since DMK came to the centre stage would show this.

So Thirumangalam formula will ensure his victory anyway.

If he introduces Prohibition, definitely that will be a hit with the general public.

If he wins with Prohibition already imposed, he will be a Winner par excellence.

If he loses, he need not worry, he would be gifting the new government an empty exchequer with a major source of income gone dry.

But he would have earned a name for imposing Prohibition.

Remember today's Karunanidhi is after Name.

Looking form another angle, if he imposes Prohibition now with elections round the corner, it would blunt all the negative talks against him.

Even Rahul Gandhi would find it difficult to convince his mother to snap ties with Karunanidhi.

Karunanidhi is invincible.



மன்னிக்கவும், நீங்கள் தேடிய கட்டுரை எங்கள் இணையத்தளத்தில் புழக்கத்தில் இல்லை.

23 ஆண்டு காலம் அமுலில் இருந்த மது விலக்கு ரத்து!

Chennai வியாழக்கிழமை,

பெப்ரவரி 18, 11:06 AM IST

திரைப்படம் திரைப்படம்

தமிழ்நாட்டில் சுமார் 23 ஆண்டு காலம் அமுலில் இருந்த மது விலக்கு தி.மு.க. ஆட்சியின்போது 1971 ஆகஸ்டு மாதம் ரத்து செய்யப்பட்டது. சுதந்திர இந்தியாவில் தமிழ்நாட்டிலும், குஜராத் மாநிலத்திலும் மது விலக்கு அமுல் நடத்தப்பட்டு வந்தன. தமிழ்நாட்டின் அண்டை மாநிலங்களான ஆந்திரா, புதுச் சேரி, கர்நாடகம் உள்பட பிற மாநிலங்களில் மது விலக்கு அமுல் நடத்தப்படவில்லை.

புதிதாக மது விலக்கை அமுல் நடத்தும் மாநிலங்களுக்கு உதவிப்பணம் (மானியம்) வழங்கப்படும் என்று மத்திய அரசு அறிவித்தது.

"எங்களுக்கும் மானியம் வழங்குங்கள்" என்று, தமிழக முதல்_அமைச்சராக இருந்த கருணாநிதி கோரினார்." ஏற்கனவே மது விலக்கை அமுல் நடத்தி வரும் மாநிலங்களுக்கு மானியம் கிடையாது" என்று மத்திய அரசு கூறிவிட்டது.

"ஏற்கனவே மது விலக்கை அமுல் நடத்தும் மாநிலங்களுக்கு இப்படி தண்டனை அளிப்பதா? எங்களுக்கும் மானியம் கொடுங்கள்" என்று கருணாநிதி கேட்டார். ஆனால் அவருடைய கோரிக்கை ஏற்கப்படவில்லை.

இதனால் மது விலக்கை ரத்து செய்துவிட்டு, பிறகு (மத்திய அரசு மானியம் கிடைக்கும்போது) மீண்டும் அமுலுக்குக் கொண்டுவர கருணாநிதி முடிவு செய்தார். 1971 ஆகஸ்டு 30_ந்தேதி முதல் மது விலக்கு தள்ளி வைக்கப்படும் என்று தமிழக அரசு அறிவித்தது. அன்று முதல் மதுக்கடைகளைத் திறப்பதற்கு வகை செய்யும் அவசர சட்டம் ஒன்றை கவர்னர் கே.கே.ஷா பிறப்பித்தார். அவசர சட்டத்தில் கூறப்பட்டு இருந்ததாவது:-

"இப்போது தமிழக சட்டசபை கூட்டம் நடைபெறாததால், இந்த அவசர சட்டம் பிறப்பிக்கப்படுகிறது. இந்த அவசர சட்டம் ஆகஸ்டு 30_ந்தேதி முதல் அமுலுக்கு வருகிறது.

இந்த அவசர சட்டப்படி, மது விலக்கு சட்டம் அமுல் நடத்தப்படுவது அடியோடு நிறுத்தி வைக்கப்படுகிறது. அரசியல் சட்டத்தில் உள்ள அதிகாரத்தின்படி இந்த நடவடிக்கை மேற்கொள்ளப்படுகிறது." மேற்கண்டவாறு அவசர சட்டத்தில் கூறப்பட்டு இருந்தது.

மது விலக்கு அமுலில் இருந்தபோது தமிழ்நாடு முழுவதும் பல்வேறு குற்றங்களுக்காக 2,500 பேர் கைது செய்யப்பட்டு சிறைகளில் அடைக்கப்பட்டிருந்தனர். இவர்களில் மது குடித்த குற்றம், மது வாங்கிய குற்றம் போன்றவைகளுக்காக தண்டனை அடைந்தவர்களை விடுதலை செய்ய தமிழக அரசு உத்தரவிட்டது. இதனை தொடர்ந்து 700 பேர் விடுதலை செய்யப்பட்டனர்.

மீதி 1,800 பேரும் கள்ளச்சாராயம் காய்ச்சுவது, குடி போதையில் கலாட்டா செய்வது போன்ற குற்றங்களுக்காக தண்டனை பெற்றவர்கள். இவர்கள் தண்டனை காலம் முடிந்த பிறகுதான் விடுதலை செய்யப்படுவார்கள் என்று அறிவிக்கப்பட்டு விட்டது. எனவே அந்த 1,800 பேரும் தொடர்ந்து சிறையில் வைக்கப்பட்டனர்.

"கள்ளுக்கடைகள் திட்டமிட்டபடி திறக்கப்படும். கள்ளச்சாராயம் காய்ச்சு பவர்கள் மீது கடும் நடவடிக்கை எடுக்கப் படும்" என்று முதல்_அமைச்சர் கருணாநிதி கூறினார்.

மதுக்கடைகள் திறப்பதை எதிர்த்து, சுதந்திரா கட்சி எம்.எல்.ஏ. டாக்டர் ஹண்டேயும், வி.எஸ்.ஸ்ரீகுமார், வெங்கடசாமி நாயுடு ஆகியோரும் சென்னை ஐகோர்ட்டில் வழக்கு தொடர்ந்தார்கள்.

"மது விலக்கு சட்டத்தை நிர்வாக உத்தரவு மூலம் ஒத்தி வைக்க முடியாது. எனவே, தமிழ்நாட்டில் மதுக்கடைகளை திறப்பது சட்ட விரோதமான செயல். இதற்கு தடை விதிக்கவேண்டும்" என்று, மனுவில் அவர்கள் கூறி இருந்தார்கள்.

ஐகோர்ட்டு தலைமை நீதிபதி வீராசாமி, நீதிபதிகள் பி.எஸ்.கைலாசம், ஆர். சதாசிவம், டி.ராமபிரசாத் ராவ், வி.வி.ராகவன் ஆகிய 5 நீதிபதிகள் இந்த வழக்கை விசாரித்தார்கள். "மதுக்கடைகளை திறக்க அவசர சட்டம் பிறப்பிக்கப்பட்டு விட்டதால் இந்த மனு செயலற்றதாகி விடுகிறது" என்று கூறி வழக்கை நீதிபதிகள் தள்ளுபடி செய்தார்கள்.

திட்டமிட்டபடி கள்ளுக்கடைகள், சாராயக்கடைகள், ஒயின், பிராந்தி (மது) கடைகள் திறக்கப்பட்டன. தமிழ்நாடு முழுவதும் 7,395 கள்ளுக்கடைகளும், 3,512 சாராயக் கடைகளும் திறக்கப்பட்டன. சென்னை நகரில் 120 ஒயின் _ பிராந்தி கடைகளுக்கு அனுமதி கொடுக்கப்பட்டது. மற்ற மாவட்டங்களில் 60 முதல் 100 கடைகள் திறக்கப்பட்டன.

கள் ஒரு லிட்டர் ஒரு ரூபாய்க்கும், சாராயம் ஒரு லிட்டர் 10 ரூபாய்க்கும் விற்க விலை நிர்ணயம் செய்யப்பட்டது. பீர் 5 ரூபாய்க்கும், மற்ற மது வகைகள் ரூ.26 முதல் ரூ.55 வரை விலை நிர்ணயிக்கப்பட்டது. கடைகளை இரவு 10 மணிக்கு மூடிவிடவேண்டும் என்று நிபந்தனை விதிக்கப்பட்டது.

கள், சாராயம் விற்பனை அமோகமாக நடந்தது. ஒயின் _ பிராந்தி கடைகளிலும் ஒரே நாளில் ரூ.50 ஆயிரத்துக்கும் மேல் மது வகைகள் விற்பனை ஆயின.

1973_ம் ஆண்டு செப்டம்பரில் மீண்டும் மது விலக்கு கொண்டுவர நடவடிக்கை மேற்கொள்ளப்பட்டது. இதன் முதல் படியாக செப்டம்பர் 1_ந்தேதி முதல் 7 ஆயிரம் கள்ளுக்கடைகளும் மூடப்பட்டன.


Ready to revisit prohibition issue: Karunanidhi

T Muruganandham

First Published : 29 Jul 2010 01:43:10 AM IST

Last Updated : 29 Jul 2010 11:22:28 AM IST

CHENNAI: Chief Minister M Karunanidhi on Wednesday surprised all by announcing that the State government was considering PMK founder S Ramadoss' demand for reimposing prohibition in Tamil Nadu.

Answering a question in his column in Murasoli on Ramadoss saying that the government should consent to the demands put forth by TASMAC employees, Karunanidhi said "the government is considering not only the demands of TASMAC employees, but also of Ramadoss for reimposition of prohibition. A good decision will be taken in this regard very soon.'' The Chief Minister's announcement comes at a time when the PMK kept in the backburner the DMK's invitation to bury the hatchet and come together to face the next Assembly elections. Recently, Ramadoss made it clear that he was not in a hurry to take a decision on renewing ties with the DMK.

Karunanidhi's statement assumes significance as the Tamil Nadu Toddy Movement is threatening to intensify its agitation for lifting the ban on toddy sale. They argue that allowing Indian Made Foreign Liquor (IMFL) through TASMAC shops and denying permission for toddy show the government's partiality.

The DMK chief had always been of the opinion that prohibition would be correct only if it is imposed throughout the country.

His anecdote in this connection is very famous - "Tamil Nadu cannot remain a piece of camphor in the midst of raging fire.''

Significantly, the TASMAC revenue is very vital for the State government and it has been increasing every year.

The Excise and Sales Tax revenue generated through liquor sales during 2009- 10 stood at a whopping Rs 12,491.53 crore.

Besides, the IMFL production that stood at 8.13 crore bulk litres had gone up to 36.66 crore bulk litres.

The sale of IMFL was 115.34 lakh cases in 1995-96.

During 2009-10, it became 408.57 lakh.

Also, the sale of beer rose to 242.81 lakh cases from 94.72 lakh cases of 1995-96.

Ramadoss and VCK leader Thol Thirumavalavan and a host of leaders from service and religious organisations called on Karunanidhi on December 22, 2008, and demanded implementation of total prohibition in Tamil Nadu by closing down TASMAC shops with effect from Pongal day (January 14, 2009). Following the meeting, the Chief Minister assured that no new TASMAC shop would be opened and steps taken to implement prohibition in a phased manner.


Karuna says govt may introduce prohibition

CHENNAI: Dropping a bombshell, Tamil Nadu CM M Karunanidhi on Wednesday said his government was considering introduction of prohibition in the state. "Very soon, a good decision will be taken on this," he said in his customary question-answer column in the DMK organ, 'Murasoli'.

The hint came in his response to a demand by PMK founder S Ramadoss, a strong votary of prohibition, that the government should accept the demands of Tasmac liquor shop employees, who are threatening to go on an indefinite strike soon if their services were not regularized.

"Why this demand alone? We are even prepared to consider Ramadoss' demand for implementing prohibition in the state," he said and added that a decision would be taken soon. While his remarks may have been intended as a snub to Ramadoss for taking up the cause of liquor outlet employees on the one hand and demanding prohibition on the other, it is apparent that Karunanidhi is gearing up for a major policy shift.

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

IVC was the post Mahabharata culture (World Tamil Conference series 14)

The researchers of the Indus- Saraswathy sites give the date of the civilization as starting from a time that coincides with the departure of Krishna or the loss of Dwarka to the seas.

The early settlements happened in 3300 BC roughly around the time of Mahabharata.

The latest period (1500 BC) coincides with the shifting if people from Dwaraka to Tamilnadu which we have discussed in the previous posts.

The period of the IVC through different phases has been given below.


Table 1 Harappa Chronology




Period 1

Ravi aspect of the Hakra Phase

3300 BC - c. 2800 BC

Period 2

Kot Diji (Early Harappa) Phase

c. 2800 BC - c. 2600 BC

Period 3A

Harappa Phase A

c. 2600 BC - c. 2450 BC

Period 3B

Harappa Phase B

c. 2450 BC - c. 2200 BC

Period 3C

Harappa Phase C

2200 BC - c. 1900 BC

Period 4

Harappa/Late Harappa Transitional

c. 1900 BC - c. 1800 BC(?)

Period 5

Late Harappa Phase

c. 1800 BC (?) - < 1300 BC

Interestingly the beginning of the settlements and the further progress of them match with the movement of people from Dwaraka after Krishna's departure.

These details can be read in Chapter 16 and section 4 to 7 of Mahabharata. Section 4 of this chapter (Musala parva) tells about Krishna's departure and section 7 on the route taken by the people led by Arjuna. The translation of this part is given at the end of this post.

This route solves quite a few questions as also the question of the origin of the IVC people.

First issue is the choice of places as shown by the route. Arjuna came to Dwaraka from his capital Indraprastha (Delhi) after the fateful end of Vrishnis in self destruction. It is quite interesting that he did not plan to take the people to his capital or to the areas of the Ganges. He had taken a western route and reached the land of Five rivers.

According to Musala Parva he took the people for a long journey through pleasant forests, streams and waterways. On the way they stayed at such amicable places and then proceeded to the Land of Five waters. The earliest settlement of the IVC people is found at Ravi!

But this journey to Ravi and further establishment of a permanent settlement was not without a problem. On the way they were attacked by Mlechas.

Mlechas were the non-Vedic people confined to the North west frontier of the then Bharath varsha which includes Middle east of today.

Their origins date back to more than 10,000 years ago as per a deduction I made based on the Mlecha astrology and some narration from Valmiki Ramayana. The article can be read here:-

The Mlechas have always watched the developments in Bharath varsha. Some Mlechas took part in the Mahabharata war also.

When Arjuna escorted the women and kids of Vrishni heroes as also the numerous people of the Dwaraka, they attacked their cavalcade and took the women with them. Arjuna could not quell their advances.

Perhaps the threat from Mlechas discouraged him to go further north or west.He settled them at the land of five rivers (Ravi, Sutlej / Punjab) and then took a turn towards east and came to Kurushetra. He settled some in and around Kurukshetra and settled others on the banks of Sarawathy - so says the narration in Musala parva. From there he went to Indraprastha and settled some under the ruler ship of Krishna's grandson.

If his intention was to go to Indraprastha why didn't he choose straight route to Indraprastha?

Why did he go to the Indus first and take a round-about route to Indraprastha?

These questions arise when we read the narration of the route.

Arjuna's route

It seems he planned to settle them in the Indus region only and not the Genges region. He went to the Indus but had to abort his plan due to Mlecha threat.

Groups of people seemed to have settled as the cavalcade proceeded along with the river Indus. There is a concentration of early settlements of IVC around Amri and Mohenjo-daro. But between this area and the upper parts of the river that include Ravi and Satlej, the settlements are rare. This coincides with the stretch when the cavalcade was attacked by the Mlechas.

This seemed to have prompted Arjuna to change his plans and his route. He then turned towards Kurukshetra and then to the river Saraswathy where he settled the people.

All these locations match with the IVC settlements and the period of IVC as well.

Yet another group seemed to have crossed the snowy Himalayas and went beyond to a place called Kalpa.

Krishna's wife Sathyabhama went through this route. So there is scope to believe that she would not have gone alone but was accompanied by her loyalists. This location called Kalpa takes the movement of Dwarakans to Afghnasithan and parts of Central Europe.

Archeologically these areas also are likely to throw up connections with IVC people.

All these settlements started around 3000 BC.

An interesting correlation is that the coins unearthed from a site in Bactria belonging to a period around 180 BC depict the figures of Krishna and Balarama.
Article and the images of the coin given at the end of this post).

Bactria had been under the influence of the Greeks. It is possible to argue that the Indian connection (whatever) in post Alexander period would have cultivated interest in Krishna in that country. But that looks unlikely because unless Krishna cult had found favour with the kings and subjects of that country for quite sometime, this kind of issue of coins with their images could not happen. My guess is that this place might be the one where the group that went with Satyabhama settled down. Over the course of years, they would have perpetuated the memory of Krishna and Balarama which found an expression in various ways – one being the issuance of coins. This place is not far off from Ghandhara, the home land of Gandhari. That also could explain the popularity of Krishna in that place.

The route of Arjuna solves 3 issues in one go

* The later dynasties of Iran claiming themselves as "Aryan of the Aryans" might be the result of connection with the women of Dwaraka who were kidnapped by the Mlechas. Their kids also would have gone with them and would have retained their pride as Aryans. The findings of the recent research in genetics that state that North Indians share a common gene pool with the people of Middle East and Central Europe also is explained by this mass abduction of women by those of the Middle east.

* The settlements of IVC follow the pattern of Arjuna's stop-overs and his change of route from Ravi when he encountered threat to the safety of the people.This suggests that IVC was post -Mahabharata culture of the people of Dwaraka.

* Arjuna did not take the people to Indraprastha or the gangetic plain. Probably the people did not want to settle in those places. The reason can be traced to the times of formation of Dwaraka. After the fall of Kamsa, the Vrishnis were facing repeated attacks from Jarasandha, thefather in law of Kamsa. In order to avoid blood shed, Krishna moved to Dwaraka. People from diverse regions of the Ganges and Yamuna accompanied him and settled down in Dwaraka. So within the group that we call as Dwarakans, there were different clans having their ancestry to regions in the vast Gangetic plains.The Dwarakans who were forced to move out of Dwaraka in the wake of submergence would not have liked to go back to their early homes for they might have still found some threat to themselves in those places. That could be reason for a totally different direction where the promise of water was there. They would have initially planned to settle in the land of Five rivers (Indus). But Mlecha threat would have made them go for Saraswathy banks which was drying even at those times.

The period between 3000 BC and 1500 BC saw the flourishing of these people in these original settlements who seemed to have spread through the course of the river Saraswathy in due course - wherever / whenever it had shown promise of water.

By 1500 BC the saraswathy dried up for most parts thereby forcing the people to dissipate to different regions.

But this period marks the movement of people from Dwarka to Tamil nadu!

Piecing together the information from Tamil texts (which we discussed in previous posts) and the current post, it seems likely that another city of Dwaraka was built after Krishna's Dwaraka was lost. The people had flourished there until 1500 BC without any major disturbance. From Prof SR Rao's findings we come to know that this Dwaraka was submerged around 1500 BC. The sage Agasthya guided them this time and brought them to Tamil nadu. Around this time, their kith and kin who had long ago settled along the Saraswathy and other places might have left for different places. The Dwarakans had no people or place to fall back on. It was Agsthaya who came to their rescue.

Rest is part of Tamil history. It must be recalled that the period of 49 generations that poet Kapilar mentions as the predecessors of the King IrungoveL matches with this period around 1500 BC.

These people who came to Tamilnadu were the displaced people who had connection with the Indus civilization, but not the Tamils.

The Tamils were nowhere near this civilization as to claim a role in that.

Rest in the next post.


Arjuna's route:-


Mahabharata, chapter 16 - Musala parvam, section 7

The son of Pandu, having next performed duly those sraddha rites that are done to the dead, quickly set out on the seventh day, mounting on his car.

The widows of the Vrishni heroes, wailing aloud, followed the high-souled son of Pandu. Dhananjaya, on cars drawn by bullocks and mules and camels.

All were in deep affliction. The servants of the Vrishnis, their horsemen, and their car-warriors too, followed the procession. The citizens and the inhabitants of the country, at the command of Pritha's son, set out at the same time and proceeded, surrounding that cavalcade destitute of heroes and numbering only women and the aged and the children.

The warriors who fought from the backs of elephants proceeded on elephants as huge as hills. The foot-soldiers also set out, together with the reserves. The children of the Andhaka and the Vrishni races, all followed Arjuna. The Brahmanas and Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas, and wealthy Sudras, set out, keeping before them the 16,000 women that had formed Vasudeva's harem, and Vajra, the grandson of the intelligent Krishna. The widows of the other heroes of the Bhoja, the Vrishni, and the Andhaka races, lordless now, that set out with Arjuna, numbered many millions. That foremost of car-warriors, that conqueror of hostile towns, the son of Pritha, escorted this vast procession of Vrishnis, which still abounded with wealth, and which looked like a veritable ocean.

"After all the people had set out, the ocean, that home of sharks and alligators, flooded Dvaraka, which still teemed with wealth of every kind, with its waters. Whatever portion of the ground was passed over, ocean immediately flooded over with his waters. Beholding this wonderful sight, the inhabitants of Dvaraka walked faster and faster, saying, 'Wonderful is the course of fate!' Dhananjaya, after abandoning Dvaraka, proceeded by slow marches, causing the Vrishni women to rest in pleasant forests and mountains and by the sides of delightful streams.

Arrived at the country of the five waters, the puissant Dhananjaya planted a rich encampment in the midst of a land that abounded with corn and kine and other animals. Beholding those lordless widows escorted by Pritha's son alone O Bharata, the robbers felt a great temptation (for plunder). Then those sinful wretches, with hearts overwhelmed by cupidity, those Abhiras of ill omen, assembled together and held a consultation. They said, 'Here there is only one bowman, Arjuna. The cavalcade consists of children and the old. He escorts them, transgressing us. The warriors (of the Vrishnis) are without energy.'

Then those robbers, numbering by thousands, and armed with clubs, rushed towards the procession of the Vrishnis, desirous of plunder. Urged by the perverse course of time they fell upon that vast concourse, frightening it with loud leonine shouts and desirous of slaughter. The son of Kunti, suddenly ceasing to advance along the path, turned, with his followers, towards the place where the robbers had attacked the procession. Smiling the while, that mighty-armed warrior addressed the assailants, saying, 'You sinful wretches, forbear, if ye love your lives. Ye will rue this when I pierce your bodies with my shafts and take your lives.' Though thus addressed by that hero, they disregarded his words, and though repeatedly dissuaded, they fell upon Arjuna.

Then Arjuna endeavoured to string his large, indestructible, celestial bow with some effort. He succeeded with great difficulty in stringing it, when the battle had become furious. He then began to think of his celestial weapons but they would not come to his mind. Beholding that furious battle, the loss of the might of his arm, and the non-appearance of his celestial weapons, Arjuna became greatly ashamed. The Vrishni warriors including the foot-soldiers, the elephant-warriors, and the car-men, failed to rescue those Vrishni women that were being snatched away by the robbers. The concourse was very large. The robbers assailed it at different points. Arjuna tried his best to protect it, but could not succeed. In the very sight of all the warriors, many foremost of ladies were dragged away, while others went away with the robbers of their own accord. The puissant Arjuna, supported by the servants of the Vrishnis, struck the robbers with shafts sped from Gandiva. Soon, however. O king, his shafts were exhausted.

In former days his shafts had been inexhaustible. Now, however, they proved otherwise. Finding his shafts exhausted, he became deeply afflicted with grief. The son of Indra then began to strike the robbers with the horns of his bow. Those Mlecchas, however, O Janamejaya, in the very sight of Partha, retreated, taking away with them many foremost ladies of the Vrishnis and Andhakas.

The puissant Dhananjaya regarded it all as the work of destiny. Filled with sorrow he breathed heavy sighs at the thought of the non-appearance of his (celestial) weapons, the loss of the might of his arms, the refusal of his bow to obey him, and the exhaustion of his shafts. Regarding it all as the work of destiny, he became exceedingly cheerless. He then ceased, O king, to make further efforts, saying, he had not the power which he had before.

The high-souled one, taking with him the remnant of the Vrishni women, and the wealth that was still with them, reached Kurukshetra. Thus bringing with him the remnant of the Vrishnis, he established them at different places. He established the son of Kritavarma at the city called Marttikavat, with the remnant of the women of the Bhoja king.

Escorting the remainder, with children and old men and women, the son of Pandu established them, who were bereft of heroes, in the city of Indraprastha.

The dear son of Yuyudhana, with a company of old men and children and women, the righteous-souled Arjuna established on the banks of the Sarasvati.

The rule of Indraprastha was given to Vajra.

The widows of Akrura then desired to retire into the woods. Vajra asked them repeatedly to desist, but they did not listen to him. Rukmini, the princess of Gandhara, Saivya, Haimavati, and queen Jamvabati ascended the funeral pyre.

Satyabhama and other dear wives of Krishna entered the woods, O king, resolved to set themselves to the practice of penances. They began to live on fruits and roots and pass their time in the contemplation of Hari.

Going beyond the Himavat, they took up their abode in a place called Kalpa.

Those men who had followed Arjuna from Dwaravati, were distributed into groups, and bestowed upon Vajra. Having done all these acts suited to the occasion, Arjuna, with eyes bathed in tears, then entered the retreat of Vyasa. There he beheld the Island-born Rishi seated at his ease."


On the coins from Bactria showing Krishna and Balarama:-


Balarāma and Kiha in Bactrian coins

Dr. R. Nagaswamy

Balarāma, the brother of Kṛṣha, was an influential god in early centuries of the current era, His sculptural representations are found in many places of India as at Nagarajunakonda in early period. He is shown generally with a drinking cup and standing by the side of his sister and brother Kṛṣha. He is also said to be given to drink and pleasures (Bhōga)

Balarāma in a Bactrian coin

Obverse: Balarāma, with Greek legends on either side :

Reverse: Kriha with Brāhmi legend;

the conch is held vertically:

courtesy Wikipedia

Balarāma is shown in a square silver coin ( a standard drachma) issued by the Bactrian King Agathocles (c.180 BC) portrayed Kriha and Balarāma that was excavated Ai-Khamun, an important archaeological site on the Oxus (ref. Arts Asiatique XXXVI ( 1973), 52-57 and Journal of the Numismatic Society of India XXXV (1973) , 1873-77.

I am thankful to Prof evendra Handa for this reference) The obverse of this coin, shows Balarāma standing with two hands holding a (hala) plough and (musala) pestle. The pestle may be identified with the dhyānaśloka of Balarāma who is interestingly called Kāmapāla i.e protector of love or desires.

sphurad-amala-kirīam kikiī-kakaārham

calad-alaka-kapōlam kuṇḍala-śrī-mukhābjam

tuhina-giri-manōjñam nīla-meghāmbarāhyam

hala-musala-viśālam kāma-pālam samīhe

By the side is written the name of the king "Basiles Agatokleus" in greek characters while on the reverse is shown Kṛṣha also standing with two arms holding a wheel and a conch. The wheel is so big it seems to do justice to the name Rathāngapāi. The Wikipedia, which illustrates this coin, identified the object in the right hand of Kṛṣha as kamaṇḍalu (Vase) but in fact it represents a conch held vertically in hand (śankha).

On both the sides of Kṛṣha is the name of the king written in perfect Brahmi script in Prakrit reading "Rane Agathuklayea".

The first letter "Ra" is in serpentine form. Whether there is a second letter is not very clear for it merges with the big cakra held in the hand of Kṛṣha. The next letter is "ne". so the actual reading is "rane". These letters are seen to the left of Kṛṣha while on to his right is the name of the king "agathuklayeha".

Both the images of Kṛṣha and Balarāma are in greek attire. Kṛṣha wearing a long sword and Balarāma an unidentified handled weapon (probably a ring with twisted rope), tucked in their waist band. They also wear the Bactrian crown with two horn like projections on either side and a jeweled umbrella over his head resembling a horizontal cap. Both are also seen wearing shoes. But what is important is that the figure of Balarāma is shown on the obverse where the Greek name occurs and the figure of Kṛṣha occurs on the reverse. It seems to emphasize the importance of Balarāma as the elder as it appears on the side of the issuer and depicts his prowess while Kṛṣha with his conch signifies "spreading fame". The conch is that which blows the fame of Kṛṣha through out the world. The choice of the two figures also seem to show the Bactrian kings made this choice of Balarāma and Kiha to exhibit their strength (by Balarāma) and fame (by Kṛṣha) on their coins.

A Sangam Tamil poem of the beginning of the CE extols four great deities Balarama, Kṛṣha and Rudra and Subrahmaya for their praiseworthy achievements as strength, fame, furious attack on enemies, and determination to fulfill his undertaking respectively. Balarāma is referred to as Vāliyōn (Vali – bala in Skt). He is also called Veḷḷai nāgan, the white serpent. It has also been suggested earlier that the depiction of the two gods, Balarāma and Kṛṣha was to exhibit the religious leanings of the issuing king. Evidently the legends of Kṛṣha and Balarāma and also their special characteristics have become so popular before the 2rd cent BC even in Bactria in the region of the River Oxus, beyond Afganisthan to be imprinted there in their coins.

Friday, July 23, 2010

The time period of migration from Dwaraka (World Tamil Conference series 13)



Agasthya brought from Dwaraka 18 kings (and their families) belonging to the lineage of Krishna, 18 types of kudi, including Velirs ( kudi / குடி means people belonging to a specific kutumbam or group or tradition. Each kudi may not include just one family, it may have many families. So there is scope for large number of people to have been brought to the South. Velirs belong to a particular kudi.) and others including Aruvaalar. This much has been told by Nacchinaarkkiniyar.



We can find distinction between these groups. The kings, 18 in number were brought to Tamil lands. 18 groups of kudi that include Velirs seem to occupy the second rung after the kings. The third category could also comprise of 18 groups, going by the specific numbers that Agasthya gathered for the other two. They could be the artisans with specialization in their fields.

In the 10th post of this series, we had a discussion on the King Irungovel whom the poet Kapilar recognizes as the 49th king in the lineage of the one who was born from the sacrificial fire (Dhrishtadyumna). This king seems to be from the group of 18 kings that Agasthya brought. We can view this in 2 ways. Either Irungovel belonged to the 49th generation starting from Dhrishtadyumna or he was the 49th king starting from the king who was brought from Dwaraka by Agasthya. This king was linked to the one who was born of the sacrificial fire.



In the former case, the counting must begin from 3000 BC while in the latter case the counting must begin from 1500 BC. 3000 BC refers to the period when Dwaraka was lost to the seas after Krishna's departure from the earth whereas 1500 BC refers to the period when the reconstructed Dwaraka at Bet Dwaraka (Dwaraka that was built after the submergence of Krishna's Dwaraka) was flooded by sea waters.

The period of the migrated people could well be around 1500 BC because that puts Kapilar's time around the start of the Common Era. Kapilar has written one group of the Pathitrup patthu songs. The kings of that book have belonged to a time around the beginning of the Common Era. A detailed research of Kapilar's all works (he has many) is needed to be done to determine his period. That would solve the question of when exactly the Dwarakans migrated.

Another issue is why the Dwarakans migrated.

In both the periods, the cause of the migration is obvious.

The submergence of the habitations had driven the people out.

In Musala parvam in Mahabharata, we find Arjuna taking the womenfolk of the vrishni race, their children and the aged along with the citizens of Dwaraka to North.



In section 7 of Musalaparva it is mentioned that he settled them at different places.

The places mentioned are  Kurukshethra, Indraprastha under the ruler ship of Vajra, the grandson of Krishna and on the banks of Saraswathy under the rulership of Yuyudhana, the son of Satyaki.


Another group left beyond Himavat and settled in a place called Kalpa (may be in present day Afghanisthan or beyond).

Thus the people of Dwaraka had spread all over North India and even beyond the Himalayas. The mention of settling them on the banks of the river Saraswathy tells who the people of IVC were.



The IVC dating starts from 3000 BC only, making it a post Mahabharata culture. The IVC culture is a continuation of the earlier culture that was in place in Dwaraka, in Indraprastha and in North India in general, as we find connection between the regions and people of all the places of North India in Mahabharata. There is no mention of movement to the South in the narration in Mahabharata.



Dwaraka submergence was predicted in advance and Krishna had given instructions in advance to take the people out of Dwaraka before the submergence began. They all have left to the North through the banks of river Saraswathy.



The mention of movement of people from Dwaraka to the South is found only in Tamil texts in the two places I have covered in this series.



The people who were already well established along the Saraswathy river and in parts of Gujarat by building yet another city on the mouth of the ocean in Bet Dwaraka had continued to live until 1500 BC. Based on the findings of Prof S.R. Rao, we conclude that the people of this region were brought to Tamilnadu by the sage Agasthya when the ocean rose to engulf this settlement.



The mention of 49 generations of king Irungo veL fills up this gap from 1500 BC to the beginning of the Common Era.



There is another clue also from which we can deduce the time.

This comes from the Pandyan connection to the setting up of Sangam Assemblage.

The last time the 3rd Sangam was constituted was during the reigns of the Pandyan king Ugra Peruvazhuthi.


The details of the duration of each Sangam are available in the commentary to Irayanar Agapporul.


According to this,

the first sangam assemblage lasted for 4,440 years in which 4,449 poets inaugurated their works,

the 2nd Sangam lasted for 3,700 years with 3,700 poets contributing their works and the 3rd Sangam lasted for 1,850 years with 449 poets making their contributions.

49 kings of the Pandyan lineage have constituted the 3rd Sangam.

The last one in that line-up was Ugra Peru vazhuthi.


This king is praised in 2 places in Purananuru. In verse 367 of Puranauru, the poetess Ovaiyar praises this king who was seen along with the other 2 kings (of Chera and Cholan dynasties) as it was very rare to see the kings of all the 3 dynasties (Pandyan, Cholan and Cheran) together. The Cholan king who was spotted along with Ugra Peruvazhuthi was Peru narkilli (who did Rajasooya yaga)



Looking at the genealogy of Cholan kings given in Thiruvalankaadu copper plates, this king had preceded Karikal Cholan who built embankment along Kaveri.


The Pandyan genealogy in Sinnamanur plates

tells about the king who made victory strides in Thalayalankaanam (Thalayalankaanatthuch cheru vendra Pandyan Nedum chezhiyan), followed by an information that Mahabharata was translated in Tamil and this news is followed by the information than the Pandyan king established Sangam in Madurai.

This refers to Ugra Pewruvazhuthi.



Much later in this king's lineage came Arikesari Parankusan whose time has been determined as 650-700 CE



From all these we can say that Ugra Peruvazhuthi lived sometime between the beginning of the CE and before 600 AD. His period marks the end of 3rd Sangam which went on for 1,850 years.

Counting backwards we get sometime around 1500 BC to 1200 BC as the time of the beginning of the 3rd Sangam.



Tholkaapiyam was inaugurated during this Sangam.

From its contents it is known that it was written after the migration of Dwarakans.

The 7 fold division of the Kumari was given up and in its place the 5 fold division was introduced. The clearing of the forest tracts for Mullai lands was done to facilitate habitations for the Dwarakan citizens most of whom happened to be cowherds.


The very reference in Tholkaapiyam to the 5 fold division begins with Mullai lands of forest tracts for which Mayon (Vishnu) was the lord. The accordance of the first place to Mullai in Tholkaapiyam with its attendant season is an issue in debate today. Viewed from the prospect of Dwarakan settlement, this is not an issue. It is an age old custom of Tamil people to give prime importance and attention to athithis (virunthombal  / விருந்தோம்பல்) . True to that custom, the people who came to Tamil lands in search of succor were given prime importance.



With their arrival, reorganization of lands was done and that was reflected in Tholkaapiyam. Before that the Pandyans also were displaced due to the submergence of their lands. That must have been much before the arrival of the Dwarakans. If we say that the 3rd Sangam started around 1500 BC to 1200 BC, it shows that the Pandyans were well established by the time 1500 BC. The submergence of Kumari must happened well before that time, may be around the time of Yuga-pralaya (the deluge at the start of kali yuga which also saw the submergence of Krishna's Dwaraka around 3000 BC) and it could have taken a millennium for the people of Tamilnadu to cope with the deluge and re-settlement. The history of this period is not known.  Even the genealogy of Cholans and Pandyans found in inscriptions are silent on this period. This seems to be a period of picking up lost threads.



This period is mute in the North Indian history also. The only exception is the IVC people, the descendants of the displaced people of Dwaraka. They continued their life and moved on to greener pastures as Saraswathy became increasingly unhelpful. But misfortune struck those settled in Bet Dwaraka, when they experienced a tsunami like invasion on their lands. Their first option could have been to move along the Saraswathy as their clans did long ago. But Saraswathy became unreliable by 1500 BC.



They would not have opted to cross the Vindhyas and the dense forests of Dandaka. But sage Agasthya could have come to their help and offered to take them beyond the Vindhyas to Deep South which was his home.



Thus came the Dwarakans to Tamilnadu and settled down in the allotted tracts and later spread to other places.

The people of Dwaraka seem to have brought with them the skills they specialized.
Whatever is found in IVC in terms of pottery, metal works, cultivation etc are noted in Tamilnadu with the same stamp, thanks to the import of those skills by the Dwarakans. 

A paper read in the World Tamil Conference points out to the similarities in the names of places in Tamilnadu with those in Maharashtra and Gujarat. The author seeks to link this to Dravidian roots from IVC to Tamils.
No it is wrong.
Tamils have been there for 1000 s years before Dwarakans came to their lands.
The similarity in names is because the Dwarakans made their presence very strong in Tamilnadu and almost invaded all walks of life and placed their stamp everywhere.

No wonder none of the 3 kings (Pandyans, Cherans and Cholans) liked them and were all the time focused on destroying the Velirs and Kings of Dwarakan lineage. The artisans (other kudi and 18 groups of people and sects like Aruvalar ) might have been skilled ones but might not have received kind reception and acceptance in due course. This might have led to discrimination against them which gradually made them subjugated castes. The caste conflict must be evaluated from this angle too.



To cite some examples, Vanniyars of Tamilnadu might be the Banyas of Gujarat. They might have belonged to the clan of Dwarakans who migrated. Similarly the metal workers, furnace workers, potters and others of Dwaraka who were engaged in a variety of jobs might not have received an equal treatment from local Tamils at all times. All these would have given rise to caste discrimination in due course.


It must be recalled that Parayan, Thudian, Kadamban and PaaNan were the olden clans / castes mentioned in Puranauru (verse 335). The cowherds have been there right from kuamri days onwards.(Kalith thogai 104)  They shifted to the present day Tamil nadu along with the Pandyan king when Kumari was lost to the seas, says the verse in Kalith thogai. We will discuss the issues related to them in future posts in this series.


Presently, the information that Dwarakans of  different clans - all of them having a good tradition by birth and by skills – coming to Tamilnadu in good numbers gives rise to a theory that they might have faced differences leading to struggles and conflicts that would have put the weaker ones at the receiving end of differential treatment.


There is scope to say that the Dwarakans did a cultural invasion – the notable one being the introduction of Krishna cult and Balarama worship in Tamil lands. There are other ones also which will be discussed in the next post. The Dwarakan merger needs to be studied for the kind of cultural and social invasion of Tamils by them.


The Dravidian concept has no place in this situation.

The Dravidian displacement is only a myth.

The Dravidian identity of Tamils is a fallacy.

If those who have shifted to Tamilnadu were considered as Dravidians, then they were not Tamils.

They were the people of Dwaraka or of North who came to Tamilnadu seeking a place for them to live in the midst of Tamils.
It is a pity that Mr Karunanidhi and his coterie did not realize this.

Given below are the excerpts of the paper on similarity between names in Tamilnadu and Gujarat presented by Mr Balakrishnan IAS in the just concluded World Tamil Conference.

The interesting  info is that these places are found in the Cheran lands (Kerala) and the east of the Western ghats where the Dwarakans settled in large numbers. This goes well with my contention of Dwarakan migration.


The names he has mentioned:-
Amoor (ஆமூர்),

Avur (ஆவூர்),

Aiyur (ஐயூர்),

Mogur (மோகூர்),

Kallur (கள்ளூர்),

Korkai (கொற்கை),

Vanji (வஞ்சி),

Thondi (தொண்டி)


By adding the suffix 'am' the following names found in the North sound like Tamil words.


Arang (அரங்),

Kandeer (கண்டீர்),

Kavir (கவிர்),

Kuraal (குரால்),

Maarok (மாறோக்),  

Maanthar (மாந்தர்),

Muthiraa (முதிரா),

Thondak (தொண்டக்)

என்ற இடப்பெயர்களுடன் அம் என்ற விகுதியைச் சேர்த்தால், சங்க இலக்கிய இடப்பெயர்களான அரங்கம், கண்டீரம், கவிரம், குராலம், மாறோக்கம், மாந்தரம், முதிரம், தொண்டகம்  போன்றவற்றை மீட்டுருவாக்கம் செய்யலாம்.







சிந்துசமவெளியில் தமிழ்ப் பெயர்கள் :


பாலகிருஷ்ணன் ஐஏஎஸ

ஒருபுறம், சிந்து சமவெளிப் பகுதியிலும் அதற்கு அப்பாலும் வழங்கும் இடப் பெயர்கள் தற்போது தென்னிந்தியாவில், குறிப்பாகத் தமிழகத்தில் வழக்கிலுள்ள இடப் பெயர்களை அச்சுமாறாமல் அப்படியே நினைவுபடுத்துகின்றன.

அதுமட்டுமன்றி, அவ்வடமேற்குப் புலத்தில், சங்க இலக்கியங்கள் குறிப்பிடுகிற ஊர்களின், ஆறுகளின், மலைகளின், துறைமுகங்களின், தலைநகரங்களின், பல்வேறு அரசுக்குடிகளின் ஆட்சிக்குள்பட்ட பகுதிகளின் பெயர்களை மட்டுமன்றி பல்வேறு பழந்தமிழக் குடிகளின், மன்னர்களின் பெயர்களையும், குடிப்பெயர்களையும், வேளிர், அதியர் மற்றும் பல குறுநிலக் குடிகளையும் குறுநிலத் தலைவர்களின் பெயர்களையும் அப்படியே நினைவுறுத்தும் இடப் பெயர்கள் இன்றும் வழக்கில் உள்ளன.

மறுபுறம், தமிழகத்தில் இன்றும்கூட சிந்துவெளி இடப் பெயர்களுடன் ஒப்பிடத்தக்க இடப் பெயர்கள் வழக்கில் உள்ளன என்பதுடன், ஏராளமான சிந்துவெளி மற்றும் வடமேற்குப் புலப் பெயர்கள் தமிழகத்தில் வாழும் பழங்குடிகள் மற்றும் வேளாண்குடிகளின் இடப் பெயர்களாகவும், குலப் பெயர்களாகவும், குடிப் பெயர்களாகவும் விளங்குகின்றன. இவை, சிந்து சமவெளியின் தமிழ்த் தொடர்பிற்கு புதிய வெளிச்சம் தரும் என்பதில் ஐயமில்லை.

சிந்து சமவெளி நாககத்தின் திராவிட, மிகக் குறிப்பாகத் தொல்தமிழ்த் தொடர்பை, சிந்து, ஹரப்பா பகுதிகளிலும் அதற்கு அப்பாலும் வழங்குவது இடப் பெயர்களைக் கொண்டு நிறுவுவது இயலும். குறிப்பாகத் தமிழக, கேரளப் பகுதிகளில் அண்மைக்காலங்களில் கண்டறியப்பட்டுள்ள தொல்பொருள் அகழாய்வுகளும் அவை தரும் தரவுகளும் சிந்துவெளி திராவிடத் தொடர்புக்கு சான்றளிக்கின்றன.

எடுத்துக்காட்டாக, ஆமூர், ஆவூர், ஐயூர், மோகூர், கள்ளூர், கொற்கை, வஞ்சி, தொண்டி போன்ற பெயர்கள் அச்சுமாறாமல் அப்படியே ஒலிக்கப்படும் பெயர்கள் வடபுலங்களில் உள்ளன.

இப்பகுதிகளில் வழங்கும் அரங், கண்டீர், கவிர், குரால், மாறோக், மாந்தர், முதிரா, தொண்டக் என்ற இடப்பெயர்களுடன் அம் என்ற விகுதியைச் சேர்த்தால், சங்க இலக்கிய இடப்பெயர்களான அரங்கம், கண்டீரம், கவிரம், குராலம், மாறோக்கம், மாந்தரம், முதிரம், தொண்டகம் போன்றவற்றை மீட்டுருவாக்கம் செய்யலாம்.

கடலுள் மூழ்கியதாகக் கூறப்படும் பஃறுளி ஆற்றின் பெயர் பக்ரோலி என்ற ஊரின் பெயராக இருப்பதையும் காணலாம்" இவ்வாறு பாலகிருஷ்ணன் தனது கட்டுரையில் குறிப்பிட்டுள்ளார்.