## Thursday, January 27, 2011

### On Yuga-Classification and what causes Yugas

On yugas, in several places in Mahabharata it is said that Yuga is formed by the King / by the dharma.
The yuga classification of Surya Siddhantha is astronomy.
But in human life, dharma and danda neeti determine the Yugas.

Proof from Mahabharata:-

• (Shanti parva -140)
'O bull of Bharata's race, that Krita, Treta, Dwapara, and Kali, as regards their setting in, are all dependent on the king's conduct.'

• (Shanti parva – 68)
'Whether it is the king that makes the age, or, it is the age that makes the king, is a question about which thou shouldst not entertain any doubt. The truth is that the king makes the age.
The king is the creator of the Krita age, of the Treta, and of the Dwapara. The king is the cause of the fourth age called Kali. '

• Krishna to karna (Udyoga parva 142)

'when thou wilt hear the twang of Gandiva piercing the welkin like the very thunder, then all signs of the Krita, the Treta, and the Dwapara ages will disappear but, instead, Kali embodied will be present.'

• Kunti (Udhyoga parva -132)

'When the king properly abides by the penal code, without making any portion of it a dead letter, then that best of periods called the Krita Yuga sets in. Let not this doubt be thine, viz, whether the era is the cause of the king, or the king the cause of the era, for know this to be certain that the king is the cause of the era. It is the king that creates the Krita, the Treta, or the Dwapara age. Indeed, it is the king that is the cause of also the fourth Yuga viz, the Kali'

• Markandeya (vana parva – 187) Yuga calculation very well detailed

• Vana parva 148 – Hanuman also gives a good explanation on yuga

****************

I rely on Markandeya's version.

According to him the years of yugas are

400 + 4000 + 400 = 4,800
300 + 3000 + 300 = 3,600
200 + 2000 + 200 = 2,400
100 + 1000 + 100 = 1,200
= 12,000
Add 10-% sandhi for this before and after
1,200 + 1,200 = 2,400
Total = 12,000 +   2,400 = 14,400 years.

The ascending and descending of this = 14,400 + 14,400 = 28,800 years

15 times of this 28,800 = kali maha yuga duration at cosmic level (4,32,000 )

150 times this 28,800 = 1 chathur maha yuga

150,000 times this 28,800 = 1 kalpa.

On the other side, let us see the split up of 28,800 years = precession of the sun around the zodiac.

60 years is the basic unit.
This is equal to the years in one conjunction of the planets of dharma (Jupiter) and karma (saturn)
Jupiter's 1 revolution = 12 years

Saturn's 1 revolution = 30 years.

They conjunct in the same place in the same sign once in 60 years. So this is the basic life of dharma - karma of a man.

The ascending and descending part = 60 +60 = 120 years.
120 times 120 = 14,400
14,400 + 14,400 = 28, 800

Now  connect this with what I wrote above.

Previous posts:-

From

## Monday, January 24, 2011

### Are we going to have a second Sun?

After the story of shifting Zodiac, we now have a new story from scientists that the earth is going to see a second sun! I have all respect for the scientists and I don’t mean to disregard them or ridicule them. In fact I subscribe to many science magazines and keenly read latest developments. But this particular information that has hit the headlines comes with a prediction – which if made by an astrologer would have invited severe censure. It gives a time period for the sighting of the second sun varying from as close as a year to millions of years!!

The celestial body under scrutiny for becoming a second sun is an astrologically important one which also happens to be an important entity in Vedic parlance thereby giving us a clear-cut idea of what possibly could happen to it and when.
This entity is none other than the celebrated God of the Trinity – Rudra!
Known as Thiruvadhirai or Arudra, this star in the constellation of Orion is a red giant nearing its end days.
But when the end will come is a matter of speculation to the scientific community. Usually they used to say that it would happen in the next few millions of years.
Now perhaps hyped by the Mayan date, they have started thinking of its end as early as 2012 itself!!

If this star explodes as a super nova, it will look bright and seen in the day time too. At night the brightness it emanates will be equal to that of Moon.

Will this happen in the near future?
Or will such a star, regarded as an important deity (remember Arudhra darshanam in the month of margazhi) come to an end?

Whether Arudra’s life will end or not is not a question in our dharma.
But if a second sun is seen in the sky, the world will come to an end – according to sakuna sastra.
At least a worst catastrophe will occur on earth wiping most of its inhabitants.
An explosion making it look like a sun will scorch the earth or affect the earth in worst ways.

The world will anyway come to an end when Rudra stirs up according to the principles of the respective duties of the Trinities.
But if we search for the answer for whether such an end will come now, it is not so. Vedic knowledge has answers for when the world for living beings came into existence and when it will die out.
The four faced Brahma did not start his work without a pre-plan.
The time and space determinants of how long this creation will go on have been stipulated.

As such we are at present in the day- kalpa of Brahma when life is brimming on the earth. The total duration of this period is 4,32,00,00,000 years.
Of this, nearly half the period is over now as we are in the 28th chathur yuga in the 7th manvantra.
By this year we have covered 196, 08,53,111 years so far.
Until we cover the rest of the period of the kalpa, no great danger will come to earth.
But human life might end much before that.

In this backdrop Arudra stands for destruction.
As long as Arudra keeps going, creative inputs will be there.
For instance Arudra stands for rains.
The day the sun enters the star Arudra is noted in astrology and predictions are made for the ensuing rainy season.
This is recorded in our almanacs as Arudra- pravesam.
So as long as Vedic dharma exists in some way and as long as some follower of Sanathana dhrama lives, Arudra will not disappear.
Its end can happen only when there is complete anarchy and Vedic dharma is completely forgotten – like how they used to say that Vedas were stolen by asuras and hidden somewhere.
So I don’t foresee the end of Arudra in the near future.

Rohini, Mrigashira and Arudra stand for the Trinity in that order.
In this figure of Orion, the pink arrow mark shows Arudra (Betelgeuse).

The green arrow shows Mrigashira.
It is in the direction of Mrigashira, our galaxy and Universe is progressing.
At present this constellation of Orion can be seen rising in the east after sun set.

Arudra stands at one end of our galaxy. In the visible sky, on the other side is the other olden star, Jyeshta. It is as though these oldies are keeping a watch on us.

In this picture, the green arrow on top points to the location of Arudra. The green arrow at the bottom points to the location of Jyeshta.

The further progression of the Universe will be in the direction of Mrigashira.
But then, for the duration of another Kalpa there will not be any creation of life.
The Universe will anyway keep moving.
By the time the day-kalpa of Brahma begins, life will be manifest at that time in that part of the Sky where the Universe has progressed.
To give the precise date according to Vedic knowledge, the next sighting of life can be seen in the direction of Mrigashira at a distance of 6,28,08,53,111 years ahead.

-         jayasree

*******

From

COSMIC PHENOMENON
Earth likely to get second Sun soon
London,

The Earth could soon have a second Sun when one of the brightest stars in the night sky explodes into a supernova. The cosmic phenomenon, which may happen as soon as this year and remain for at least a week or two, is expected to be the most stunning light show in the planet's history.

According to astronomers, the Earth will undoubtedly have a front row seat when the dying red super-giant star, called Betelgeuse, finally blows itself into oblivion. The explosion will be so bright that even though the star in the Orion constellation is 640 light years away, it will still turn night into day and appear like there are two suns in the sky for a few weeks, the Daily Mail reported.

The only real debate is over exactly when it will happen. In stellar terms, Betelgeuse is predicted to crash and burn in the very near future.

Brad Carter, of the University of Southern Queensland in Australia, claimed that the galactic blast could happen before 2012 -or any time over the next million years.
"This old star is running out of fuel in its centre," Dr Carter was quoted as saying. -PTI

****
UPDATE on 4th Jan 2020

Even after nearly a decade the same speculation about Betelgeuse is continuing!  Read the article in Space.com

# Bright Star Betelgeuse Might Be Harboring a Deep, Dark Secret

HONOLULU —The giant red star Betelgeuse might be harboring a gruesome secret in its past. A new model posits that the prominent night-sky object was once two stars, until the larger star ate its smaller companion. And that could explain several of Betelgeuse's peculiar properties.
Betelgeuse is a whopper of a star, with a diameter of 600 million miles (965 million kilometers), bigger than the orbit of Mars, according to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. At a relatively close distance of 520 light-years from Earth, Betelgeuse is also one of the few stars whose surface features can be resolved with telescopes.
By closely monitoring Betelgeuse's surface, different researchers have calculated that the star's rotational rate is somewhere between 11,000 and 33,000 mph (17,700 to 53,000 km/h), Manos Chatzopoulos, an astronomer at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, said during a session on Monday (Jan. 6) at the 235th meeting of the American Astronomical Society here.
This is surprising because as a star ages and enters the red giant phase of its life, like Betelgeuse has, the star expands and its rotation typically slows down, much like an ice skater pushing out their arms to slow their spin, Chatzopoulos told Live Science.
Betelgeuse is also a runaway star, meaning that the object is zipping along at a mind-boggling speed, in Betelgeuse's case, 67,000 mph (108,000 km/h) relative to background stars in the Milky Way, he added.
"For such a famous star that everyone knows and loves, nobody has tried to explain the combination of these two things," Chatzopoulos said, referring to its odd rotation rate and speed. "So how do you put together these two facts?"
A clue might come from where Betelgeuse is thought to originate, a star-dense region known as the Orion OB1a association. Along with colleagues, Chatzopoulos has suggested that gravitational interactions with the many stars in that region could have flung Betelgeuse away at high speed millions of years ago, explaining the star's hyper-velocity.
Betelgeuse might have also had a smaller companion, the researchers posited, which got tossed out along with it. As Betelgeuse aged and expanded, it might have engulfed this partner, which would have stirred up Betelgeuse's outer layers "like stirring up coffee with a stick," Chatzopoulos said, and increased its rotation rate.
He and his collaborators have run sophisticated stellar-evolution computer models incorporating all these ideas. The results that best fit Betelgeuse’s observed features suggested it was once two separate stars, one with 16 times the sun's mass and another with four times the sun's mass. The researchers are preparing to submit their research to The Astrophysical Journal.
The researchers' models were also able to match the amount of nitrogen seen in Betelgeuse's atmosphere, which is unusually high. This is a potentially corroborating piece of evidence, because the stirring of a companion star might have dredged up nitrogen from Betelgeuse's center, Chatzopoulos said.
Earlier work by Chatzopoulos' former Ph.D. advisor offered the idea that Betelgeuse was formed as the merger of two stars. Chatzopoulos said that his new research expands on that prior idea and adds in specific simulations to account for the red giant star's rotation and speed.
"I think it's interesting," said Andrea Dupree, a senior astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics who was not involved in the work. Dupree and her colleagues previously proposed that Betelgeuse may have swallowed exoplanetary companions. But she said it would be useful to take a closer look at Betelgeuse's properties, some of which haven't been measured in as long as 30 years, before saying anything definitive.
Betelgeuse has lately been in the news over the possibility that it could imminently burst as a spectacular supernova. Should Chatzopoulos' research provide the new explanation of Betelgeuse's birth, does it mean anything about the star's death?
Chatzopoulos doesn't have an answer to that. But if his idea is correct, he said it could mean Betelgeuse was rejuvenated at some point in the past with fresh material from the companion that the star consumed. That could have led scientists to underestimate Betelgeuse's age, meaning it's not set to explode anytime soon.
As an astronomer specializing in supernovas, he finds this perhaps a bit disappointing, he said. "All of us who study supernova wish it would happen in our lifetime," he said.
Editor's Note: This story was updated to remove mention of spots on Betelgeuse's surface being used to measure rotational speed; not all measurements relied on these spots.

## Sunday, January 23, 2011

### SC condemns religious (Christian) conversion.

A landmark observation has been made by the judges of the Supreme Court in the Staines murder case. The judges have said that religious conversion is grossly unconstitutional. The cause of the murder of Mr Staines, the Christian Missionary was his conversion activity. The court has heavily come down on conversion activities and denounced it in a secular nation like ours. Unfortunately no new channel, no news paper (as far as I know) publicized this view of the judges. It is a shame on the 5th estate to have behaved like this. But for the vigilance of independent writers, we would not have come to know of this. One such report can be read in the following website.

http://www.haindavakeralam.com/HKPage.aspx?PageID=13131&SKIN=C

Some excerpts from the SC observation on conversion:-

·        "We hope Mahatma Gandhi's vision of religion playing a positive role in bringing religions and communities together into an integrated prosperous nation will be realised. There is no justification for interfering in someone's belief through force, conversion or false premise that one religion is better than the other."

·        "It is undisputed that there is no justification for interfering in someone's belief by way of 'use of force', provocation, conversion, incitement, or upon a flawed premise that one religion is better than the other."

The Congress government which is covertly and overtly allowing the flow of funds for conversion activities must take up a lesson on what Mahatma Gandhi said on conversion.

Here is compilation of Gandhian opposition to conversion done by Swami Aksharananda, produced by Vidya Bharati, New York and posted by Stephan Knapp.

http://www.stephen-knapp.com/mahatma_gandhi_on_conversion1.htm

I Call Myself a Sanatani Hindu

I call myself a Sanatani Hindu, because I believe in the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Puranas, and all that goes by the name of Hindu scripture, and therefore in avataras and rebirth; I believe in the varnashrama dharma in a sense, in my opinion strictly Vedic but not in its presently popular and distorted crude sense; I believe in the protection of cow. I do not disbelieve in murti puja. (Young India: June 10, 1921)

Why I am Not a Convert

Hinduism as I know it entirely satisfies my soul, fills my whole being. When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and when I see not one ray of light on the horizon, I turn to the Bhagavad Gita, and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow. My life has been full of tragedies and if they have not left any visible and indelible effect on me, I owe it to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. (Young India: June 8, 1925)

I Disbelieve in Conversion

I disbelieve in the conversion of one person by another. My effort should never to be to undermine another's faith. This implies belief in the truth of all religions and, therefore, respect for them. It implies true humility. (Young India: April 23, 1931)

Conversion: Impediment to Peace

It is impossible for me to reconcile myself to the idea of conversion after the style that goes on in India and elsewhere today. It is an error which is perhaps the greatest impediment to the world's progress toward peace. Why should a Christian want to convert a Hindu to Christianity? Why should he not be satisfied if the Hindu is a good or godly man? (Harijan: January 30, 1937)

No Such Thing as Conversion

I believe that there is no such thing as conversion from one faith to another in the accepted sense of the word. It is a highly personal matter for the individual and his God. I may not have any design upon my neighbour as to his faith which I must honour even as I honour my own. Having reverently studied the scriptures of the world I could no more think of asking a Christian or a Musalman, or a Parsi or a Jew to change his faith than I would think of changing my own. (Harijan: September 9, 1935)

No Conversion Designs Upon Me

I am not interested in weaning you from Christianity and making you Hindu, and I do not relish your designs upon me, if you had any, to convert me to Christianity. I would also dispute your claim that Christianity is the only true religion. (Harijan: June 3, 1937)

Conversion

Conversion must not mean denationalization. Conversion should mean a definite giving up of the evil of the old, adoption of all the good of the new and a scrupulous avoidance of everything evil in the new. Conversion, therefore, should mean a life of greater dedication to one's country, greater surrender to God, greater self-purification. (Young India: August 20, 1925)

Aping of Europeans and Americans

As I wander about through the length and breath of India I see many Christian Indians almost ashamed of their birth, certainly of their ancestral religion, and of their ancestral dress. The aping of Europeans by Anglo-Indians is bad enough, but the aping of them by Indian converts is a violence done to their country and, shall I say, even to their new religion. (Young India: August 8, 1925)

Why Should I Change My Religion

I hold that proselytisation under the cloak of humanitarian work is unhealthy to say the least. It is most resented by people here. Religion after all is a deeply personal thing. It touches the heart.

Why should I change my religion because the doctor who professes Christianity as his religion has cured me of some disease, or why should the doctor expect me to change whilst I am under his influence? (Young India: April 23, 1931)

Missionary Aim: Uprooting Hinduism

My fear is that though Christian friends nowadays do not say or admit it that Hindu religion is untrue, they must harbour in their breast that Hinduism is an error and that Christianity, as they believe it, is the only true religion. So far as one can understand the present (Christian) effort, it is to uproot Hinduism from her very foundation and replace it by another faith. (Harijan: March 13,1937)

Undermining People's Faith

The first distinction I would like to make between your missionary work and mine is that while I am strengthening the faith of people, you (missionaries) are undermining it. (Young India: November 8, 1927)

Physician Heal Yourself

Conversion nowadays has become a matter of business, like any other. India (Hindus) is in no need of conversion of this kind. Conversion in the sense of self-purification, self-realization is the crying need of the times. That however is never what is meant by proselytization. To those who would convert India (Hindus), might it not be said, "Physician, heal yourself." (Young India: April 23, 1931)

Missionaries: Vendors of Goods

When the missionary of another religion goes to them, he goes like a vendor of goods. He has no special spiritual merit that will distinguish him from those to whom he goes. He does however possess material goods which he promises to those who will come to his fold. (Harijan: April 3, 1937)

If I had the Power and Could Legislate.

If I had the power and could legislate, I should stop all proselytizing. In Hindu households the advent of a missionary has meant the disruption of the family coming in the wake of change of dress, manners, language, food and drink . (November 5, 1935)

The Only Begotten Son of God?

I regard Jesus as a great teacher of humanity, but I do not regard him as the only begotten son of God. That epithet in its material interpretation is quite unacceptable. Metaphorically we are all sons of God, but for each of us there may be different sons of God in a special sense. Thus for me Chaitanya may be the only begotten son of God. God cannot be the exclusive Father and I cannot ascribe exclusive divinity to Jesus. (Harijan: June 3, 1937)

Western Christianity Today

It is my firm opinion that Europe (and the United States) does not represent the spirit of God or Christianity but the spirit of Satan. And Satan's successes are the greatest when appears with the name of God on his lips. (Young India: September 8, 1920)

I consider western Christianity in its practical working a negation of Christ's Christianity. I cannot conceive Jesus, if he was living in flesh in our midst, approving of modern Christian organizations, public worship, or ministry. (Young India: September 22, 1921)

Christianity and Imperialistic Exploitation

Christianity in India has been inextricably mixed up for the last one hundred and fifty years with British rule. It appears to us as synonymous with materialistic civilization and imperialistic exploitation by the stronger white races of the weaker races of the world. Its contribution to India has been, therefore, largely negative. (Young India: March 21, 1929)

No Room For Them

In the manner in which they are working there would seem to be no room for them. Quite unconsciously they do harm to themselves and also to us. It is perhaps impertinent to say that they do harm to themselves, but quite pertinent to say that they do harm to us. They do harm to those amongst whom they work and those amongst whom they do not work, i.e., the harm is done to the whole of India. The more I study their activities the more sorry I become. It is a tragedy that such a thing should happen to the human family. (Harijan: December 12, 1936)

Outrage!

Only the other day a missionary descended on a famine area with money in his pocket, distributed it among the famine stricken, converted them to his fold, took charge of their temple, and demolished it. This is outrageous. (Harijan: November 5, 1937)

Let the Hindu be a Better Hindu

I came to the conclusion long ago that all religions were true and also that all had some error in them, and whilst I hold by my own, I should hold others as dear as Hinduism. So we can only pray, if we are Hindus, not that a Christian should become a Hindu. But our innermost prayer should be a Hindu should be a better Hindu, a Muslim a better Muslim, a Christian a better Christian. (Young India: January 19, 1928)

Welcome Them Back

If a person through fear, compulsion, starvation, or for material gain or consideration goes over to another faith, it is a misnomer to call it conversion. Most cases of conversion have been to my mind a false coin. I would therefore unhesitatingly re-admit to the Hindu fold all such repentants without much ado. If a man comes back to the original branch, he deserves to be welcomed in so far as he may deem to have erred, he has sufficiently purged himself of it when he repents his error and retraces his steps. (Collected Works: Vol. 66, pp. 163-164)

NOTE: As a Hindu courtesy, please acknowledge Swami Aksharanandaji who compiled this information and Vidya Bharati, New York who produced it. Please circulate as widely as possible.