Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Is Vedic astrology derived from Greek astrology? (Part 20) From Tirayans to Tiryns / Tamil to Greek words.

Contrary to the claims of opponents on Greek origins of rashi and planets of Vedic astrology, there is plenty of archaeological evidence on early Indian influence, particularly Tamil influence on Greece even before Greek civilisation took shape. Tiryns, Mycenaeans, Etruscans and Vulci who contributed to Etruscan pottery bear resemblance to Tamil culture. On the other hand the oft repeated Yavana- Kirata tribes of Mahabharata of the Eastern Himalayas and Bengal have a bearing on Greek – Crete (pronounced as Kiriti) culture giving rise to scope to believe that the Greek culture had been influenced by them. All this goes to show that there was a much earlier influence of India on Greece even before their mythologies took shape. In this article let me show the Tamil connection to Tiryns, Etruscans etc and deal with Yavana- Kirata in a later article.


If phonetics can be considered as a basis for migration of ideas – something the opponents rely upon to justify their claims on 'Krios' as the Greek origin of Mesha rashi -  there are similar reasons to consider Tamil as source for many a Greek word. In addition, cultural roots from Tamil sources can be quoted to prove that the pre-history of Greece was dominated by the people of Tamil origin. One prominent example is Tirayan!


Tirayan means 'seafarer'. Pandyans of the submerged Tamil lands were known as Tirayans. There was a Pandyan King by name "Tirayan Maaran" during the 2nd Sangam period (between 5550 BC to 1850 BC) {Refer Part 10} His name is quoted by the 9th century commentary on Irayanaar AgapporuL as one among the persons who took part in the 2nd Sangam. (1) His name is followed by Krishna's name mentioned as King of Dwaraka, (Thuvaraik kOmaan – துவரைக் கோமான்) meaning to say that Krishna too participated in one of the Sangam assemblies. (There is  no information on whether Krishna contributed any poem in Tamil or just was a distinguished onlooker, but there is ample evidence in Tamil literature including Alwars' renditions,  that he married Upakesi, locally known as Nappinnai, daughter of a local Tamil Yadava / Ayar chieftain and even had a daughter by her. (2) Magasthenes' account confirms this by a note that Krishna's daughter known as Pandaiya was settled in Madurai {when Kavatapuram in the submerged land was the Pandyan capital city}. Krishna brought Yadava families from Mathura of North and settled them in 365 villages around Madurai to serve her milk products in turn throughout the year - which can be cross checked from Silappadhikaram. As these are not relevant to our present topic, I am not going into the details of them but brought them to the notice of the list to show that whatever is mentioned in or about Sangam age etc is true.)


Tirayan may refer to any seafarer as there is another Tirayan in Sangam Texts – Ilam Tirayan or Tirayan Junior who ruled ThoNdai Mandalam around Kancheepuram. This king was not of Pandyan lineage but got the title as Tirayan because he survived a lone travel in the seas when he as a child left in a boat near Nagappattinam reached the shore near Kancheepuram. (3)  The meaning of Tirayan conveyed in this song is "one who was born of sea" or "one who was given by sea". This shows that anyone who withered the seas or lived in the seas or survived by the seas is a "Tirayan". This name as such belonged to early Pandyans who were ruling over a group of islands in the Indian Ocean.


The title as Tirayan stuck with the Pandyans only as long as they were ruling the Tamil lands (49 in all during the 2nd Sangam period) scattered in the seas. In the Maangulam inscription of Pandyan Nedum cheziyan of 3rd century BC, the title was slightly changed as "Kadalan" – one who lives by the sea, or one rules the region of the seas. (4) The title Tirayan disappeared once the Pandyans started living inland. Their life on the seas came to an end with last submergence of their entire habitat in the Indian Ocean. The time period was 1500 BC. By 1500 BC disturbances occurred in most parts of India of that time. Indus civilization was disturbed, people from Dwarka shifted to Tamil lands and Pandyans from the south seas shifted inland. That was the same time that Tiryns of Greece found a new civilization!


TIRYNS of Greece was occupied by a people whose antecedents are not known. The structures built by them stand as a testimony of their presence. These structures have been dated at 1400 BC to 1200 BC – at a time when Tirayan Pandyans were dislocated from their habitat in the Indian Ocean due to sea waves and submerges. There is a popular adage in Tamil on their seafaring nature in search of wealth (Thirai kadalOdiyum Dravyam thEdu / திரை கடலோடியும் திரவியம் தேடு. Meaning:- "Search for wealth even if it means going across the oceans") The crossing of the thirai (ocean) gave the name Tirayan.  They had been very much familiar with many sea routes and this makes it possible to think that a section of the Tirayans had landed in Greece in search of new habitat after the submergence around 1500 BC. The place where they came to settle down was identified with their name as Tiryns. 


As a foremost proof of Tirayans having settled down in Tiryns, I would point out some of the Tamil words connected with sea farers found in Greek root words. Any seafarer would be using the anchor. The Tamil name for anchor is "nangkooram" (நங்கூரம்). The Greek root word sounds similar to this. ἄγκυραankura, ἀγκυρ –ankur – This became 'anchor' in English

 (source :- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_words_with_English_derivatives )

From Tamil Nangkooram > ankura > ankur > anchor.


The PELASGIANS, similar population of the ancient Greece who inhabited regions like Crete (near Tiryns) before Greek civilization started have been identified by Greek writers as sea farers. They spoke a different language which was regarded as "barbaric". This very name Pelasgians was formed by the Greek words meaning sea-men.  "The ancient Greek word for "sea", pelagos, comes from the same root, *plāk-, as the Doric word plagos, "side" (which is flat), appearing in *pelag-skoi. Ernest Klein therefore simply interprets the same reconstructed form as "the sea men", where the sea is the flat." (5) One among the 37 synonyms of Tamil word for sea is 'Paravai' (6). "paara" and "paaram" are other words meaning sea. The Greek word Pelagos seem to be a derivation or adaptation from Parava, the sea men. There are Sangam verses on Paravas whose descendants continue to live today and are identified as fishermen community in the east coast of Tamilnadu.


The Tirayan title was held by kings of Pandyan lineage. So it makes sense to expect the Tamil word for king in this early settlement of Tiryns. Such a word does exist in Greek as "Arkhon" (ἄρχων) and "archont" (ἀρχοντ) It means ruler. From this English words Archon and Monarch have come up. Look at the Tamil equivalent. It is 'arasan'. From Tamil Arasan > archont> archon > Monarch  had come.


Another name for king in Greek was 'basileus' (βασιλεύς) and 'basil' (βασιλ). It means king. From this "Basilica" had come. This is a public building or a place connected with King's activities. In Tamil "Paasarai" means a place where the army is stationed. The king stays with his army in the "Paasarai" . The Sangam age poem of Nedunal vaadai is about the happenings when the king was in the Paasarai. There are many similar scenes in Sangam texts. The Greek Basil sounds similar to 'paasarai' which is identified with king. The pa- ba interchange had happened. From Tamil Paasarai > baasarai > basil> basileus.


The Tirayans, if they were the settlers of Tiryns, could not have had their way without some might. The Greek term for war sounds similar to the Tamil term for war. It is "polemos" (πόλεμος) or "polem" (πολεμ) to mean 'war' in Greek language. From this the English word Polemics had come. The Tamil word for war is "por". From Tamil por > polem> polemos > polemics.


A group of Tirayans settling down in a new place invariably means the family also coming with them. The Greek word for child seems to have been adapted from Tamil. It is "pais" (παῖς) or "paid" (παιδ) in Greek to mean boy or child. From this the English Paediatrics had come. The Tamil equivalent for boy is "Paiyan"! From Tamil Paiyan > Paid > Pais > Paediatrician has come.


Wherever people settle down, water is necessary. The Greek word for river sounds similar toTamil word. It is "Potamos" (ποταμός) or "potam" (ποταμ-) in Greek. From this words like Mesapatomia and Hippopotamus have come. The Tamil equivalent is Poikai, pOkku and Puthukku in old Tamil. From Tamil Pokku or Puthukku > Potam > Potamos > Hippopotamus.


Another important word connected with Tiryns is rock! The 13th century BC fort of Tiryns is found built on a hill. It was surrounded by Mighty wall of rocks! So there must exist the Tamil word for rocks in Greek terminology. It does and it is "Petra" (πέτρα) or "petr" (πετρ). Similar sounding Tamil word is "Paarai" which refers to rocks and boulders. From Tamil Paarai > Petr > Petra . From this petroleum, petrology etc have come up.


The rocks and boulders have played an important role in Tiryns because the walls of this Tiryns fort are made up of huge rocks which cannot be lifted by ordinary human beings. Characterised as CYCLOPEAN MASONRY, old Greek records say that giants of super human strength had built these walls.