Friday, August 29, 2008

Is this the way we care about our Heritage? - (The Big Temple!!)

"Sound of axe" -

this seems to be the gift for the "Uliyin vosai" that reverberated

the Great temple at Tanjore 1000 years ago!

The Grand temple - the Emperor of all temples

which weathered the vagaries of Nature

is helpless in the face of callous attitude of the ASI

The Grand Temple!

What people did.

What Archeological Survey of India did.

(Pictures and inputs from Dr S.Kalyanaraman and Mr GP Srinivasan )

E. Hultzsch, Epigraphist, to the Government of Madras from 1886 to 1903, published the monumental three volume book on the Brihadeeswara Temple inscriptions.

Volume two has Parts 1 & 2,
First published by ASI in 1892 Madras
Reprinted by Navrang in 1983.

We referred to the South Indian Inscriptions and identified the inscriptions on the broken pillars as given below. The damaged pillars and the inscriptions found on them are found published in the VOL 2 Parts 1 & 2. I am not going into details of the inscriptions in this report, as these are voluminous. These will be published separately. Some pillars have inscriptions on one side. Some have on two sides; some have inscription on three sides and some on four sides.

1) INSCRIPTION NO 47 - Pillar on three sides ( Page 191-192)

2) INSCRIPTION NO 48 - Pillar B . Has inscriptions on two sides.(PAGE 195 -196)



5) Mahahamandapam- adhistanam- kumadappadi on the outer wall- maximum damage.

6) Maximum vandalism is found inside the hollow of Sree Vimanam. The 1000 year old plaster inside the hollow gpuram has has been removed and seepage is found .

This is considerd to be maximum vandalism as this might have damaged the structural integrity of thge hollow gopuram.Paintings have been damaged . This may result in the damage to the gopuram, and to the damage of the unique Kalasam .”


What we can do.

Sign petition for
"Protection of Brihadisvara Temple, Tanjavur, India"

Indian culture in Arabia in Pre-Islamic times?

An archeological find in Kuwait of a gold-plated statue of the Hindu deity Ganesh

and the inscriptions found in the Kaaba in Mecca

seem to be rich sources of evidence of Hindu culture in Arabia

before the advent of Islam.

The inscription by King Vikramadhitya found inside the Kaaba

tell a different story of the spread of Sanatanic culture in that part of the globe.

From that inscription it is known that Arabia was conquered by Vikramadhitya.

Was he the one who also established the non-rusting Iron pillar is a curious question.

For, the inscription on the Iron pillar seems to hold a news about the King's march

to a land after crossing the Indus river and conquering 'Vahlikhas'

"He, on whose arm fame was inscribed by the sword, when, in battle in the Vanga countries (Bângal),

he kneaded (and turned) back with (his) breast of the enemies who, uniting together,

came against (him);-he, by whom, having crossed in warfare the seven mouths of the (river) Sindhu,

the Vâhlikas were conquered;-he, by the breezes of whose prowess the southern ocean is

even still perfumed;- (Line 3.)-He, the remnant of the great zeal of whose energy,

which utterly destroyed (his) enemies, like (the remnant of the great glowing heat)

of a burned-out fire in a great forest, even now leaves not the earth;

though he, the king, as if wearied, has quit this earth, and has gone to the other world,

moving in (bodily) from to the land (of paradise) won by (the merit of his) actions,

(but) remaining on (this) earth by (the memory of his) fame;- (L. 5.)-By him,

the king,-who attained sole supreme sovereignty in the world, acquired by his own arm

and (enjoyed) for a very long time; (and) who, having the name of Chandra,

carried a beauty of countenance like (the beauty of) the full-moon,-

having in faith fixed his mind upon (the god) Vishnu, this lofty standard of the divine Vishnu

was set up on the hill (called) Vishnupada."

The conclusion by Prof Oak is that this inscription indeed mentions his victory over the Arab land

and his marriage to princess Balhika of that region.

"An ancillary conclusion could be that the so-called Kutub Minar (in Delhi, India)

could well be king Vikramadiya's tower commemorating his conquest of Arabia.

This conclusion is strengthened by two pointers.

Firstly, the inscription on the iron pillar near the so-called Kutub Minar refers

to the marriage of the victorious king Vikramaditya to the princess of Balhika.

This Balhika is none other than the Balkh region in West Asia.

It could be that Arabia was wrestled by king Vikramaditya from the ruler of Balkh

who concluded a treaty by giving his daughter in marriage to the victor.

Secondly, the township adjoining the so called Kutub Minar is named Mehrauli after Mihira

who was the renowned astronomer-mathematician of king Vikram's court.

Mehrauli is the corrupt form of Sanskrit 'Mihira-Awali'

signifying a row of houses raised for Mihira and

his helpers and assistants working on astronomical observations made from the tower."

(Prof PN Oak)

More from PN Oak's narration from link given here.

Related article:-



Was the Kaaba Originally a Hindu Temple?

By P.N. Oak (Historian)

Glancing through some research material recently, I was pleasantly surprised to come across a reference to a king Vikramaditya inscription found in the Kaaba in Mecca proving beyond doubt that the Arabian Peninsula formed a part of his Indian Empire.

The text of the crucial Vikramaditya inscription, found inscribed on a gold dish hung inside the Kaaba shrine in Mecca, is found recorded on page 315 of a volume known as 'Sayar-ul-Okul' treasured in the Makhtab-e-Sultania library in Istanbul, Turkey. Rendered in free English the inscription says:

"Fortunate are those who were born (and lived) during king Vikram's reign. He was a noble, generous dutiful ruler, devoted to the welfare of his subjects. But at that time we Arabs, oblivious of God, were lost in sensual pleasures. Plotting and torture were rampant. The darkness of ignorance had enveloped our country. Like the lamb struggling for her life in the cruel paws of a wolf we Arabs were caught up in ignorance. The entire country was enveloped in a darkness so intense as on a new moon night. But the present dawn and pleasant sunshine of education is the result of the favour of the noble king Vikramaditya whose benevolent supervision did not lose sight of us- foreigners as we were. He spread his sacred religion amongst us and sent scholars whose brilliance shone like that of the sun from his country to ours. These scholars and preceptors through whose benevolence we were once again made cognisant of the presence of God, introduced to His sacred existence and put on the road of Truth, had come to our country to preach their religion and impart education at king Vikramaditya's behest."

For those who would like to read the Arabic wording I reproduce it hereunder in Roman script:

"Itrashaphai Santu Ibikramatul Phahalameen Karimun Yartapheeha Wayosassaru Bihillahaya Samaini Ela Motakabberen Sihillaha Yuhee Quid min howa Yapakhara phajjal asari nahone osirom bayjayhalem. Yundan blabin Kajan blnaya khtoryaha sadunya kanateph netephi bejehalin Atadari bilamasa- rateen phakef tasabuhu kaunnieja majekaralhada walador. As hmiman burukankad toluho watastaru hihila Yakajibaymana balay kulk amarena phaneya jaunabilamary Bikramatum".

(Page 315 Sayar-ul-okul).

[Note: The title 'Saya-ul-okul' signifies memorable words.]

A careful analysis of the above inscription enables us to draw the following conclusions:

  1. That the ancient Indian empires may have extended up to the eastern boundaries of Arabia until Vikramaditya and that it was he who for the first time conquered Arabia. Because the inscription says that king Vikram who dispelled the darkness of ignorance from Arabia.
  2. That, whatever their earlier faith, King Vikrama's preachers had succeeded in spreading the Vedic (based on the Vedas, the Hindu sacred scriptures)) way of life in Arabia.
  3. That the knowledge of Indian arts and sciences was imparted by Indians to the Arabs directly by founding schools, academies and cultural centres. The belief, therefore, that visiting Arabs conveyed that knowledge to their own lands through their own indefatigable efforts and scholarship is unfounded.

An ancillary conclusion could be that the so-called Kutub Minar (in Delhi, India) could well be king Vikramadiya's tower commemorating his conquest of Arabia. This conclusion is strengthened by two pointers. Firstly, the inscription on the iron pillar near the so-called Kutub Minar refers to the marriage of the victorious king Vikramaditya to the princess of Balhika. This Balhika is none other than the Balkh region in West Asia. It could be that Arabia was wrestled by king Vikramaditya from the ruler of Balkh who concluded a treaty by giving his daughter in marriage to the victor. Secondly, the township adjoining the so called Kutub Minar is named Mehrauli after Mihira who was the renowned astronomer-mathematician of king Vikram's court. Mehrauli is the corrupt form of Sanskrit 'Mihira-Awali' signifying a row of houses raised for Mihira and his helpers and assistants working on astronomical observations made from the tower.

Having seen the far reaching and history shaking implications of the Arabic inscription concerning king Vikrama, we shall now piece together the story of its find. How it came to be recorded and hung in the Kaaba in Mecca. What are the other proofs reinforcing the belief that Arabs were once followers of the Indian Vedic way of life and that tranquillity and education were ushered into Arabia by king Vikramaditya's scholars, educationists from an uneasy period of "ignorance and turmoil" mentioned in the inscription.

In Istanbul, Turkey, there is a famous library called Makhatab-e-Sultania, which is reputed to have the largest collection of ancient West Asian literature. In the Arabic section of that library is an anthology of ancient Arabic poetry. That anthology was compiled from an earlier work in A.D. 1742 under the orders of the Turkish ruler Sultan Salim.

The pages of that volume are of Hareer – a kind of silk used for writing on. Each page has a decorative gilded border. That anthology is known as Sayar-ul-Okul. It is divided into three parts. The first part contains biographic details and the poetic compositions of pre-Islamic Arabian poets. The second part embodies accounts and verses of poets of the period beginning just after prophet Mohammad's times, up to the end of the Banee-Um-Mayya dynasty. The third part deals with later poets up to the end of Khalif Harun-al-Rashid's times.

Abu Amir Asamai, an Arabian bard who was the poet Laureate of Harun-al-Rashid's court, has compiled and edited the anthology.

The first modern edition of 'Sayar-ul-Okul' was printed and published in Berlin in 1864. A subsequent edition is the one published in Beirut in 1932.

The collection is regarded as the most important and authoritative anthology of ancient Arabic poetry. It throws considerable light on the social life, customs, manners and entertainment modes of ancient Arabia. The book also contains an elaborate description of the ancient shrine of Mecca, the town and the annual fair known as OKAJ which used to be held every year around the Kaaba temple in Mecca. This should convince readers that the annual haj of the Muslims to the Kaaba is of earlier pre-Islamic congregation.

But the OKAJ fair was far from a carnival. It provided a forum for the elite and the learned to discuss the social, religious, political, literary and other aspects of the Vedic culture then pervading Arabia. 'Sayar-ul-Okul' asserts that the conclusion reached at those discussions were widely respected throughout Arabia. Mecca, therefore, followed the Varanasi tradition (of India) of providing a venue for important discussions among the learned while the masses congregated there for spiritual bliss. The principal shrines at both Varanasi in India and at Mecca in Arvasthan (Arabia) were Siva temples. Even to this day ancient Mahadev (Siva) emblems can be seen. It is the Shankara (Siva) stone that Muslim pilgrims reverently touch and kiss in the Kaaba.

Arabic tradition has lost trace of the founding of the Kaaba temple. The discovery of the Vikramaditya inscription affords a clue. King Vikramaditya is known for his great devotion to Lord Mahadev (Siva). At Ujjain (India), the capital of Vikramaditya, exists the famous shrine of Mahankal, i.e., of Lord Shankara (Siva) associated with Vikramaditya. Since according to the Vikramaditya inscription he spread the Vedic religion, who else but he could have founded the Kaaba temple in Mecca?

A few miles away from Mecca is a big signboard which bars the entry of any non-Muslim into the area. This is a reminder of the days when the Kaaba was stormed and captured solely for the newly established faith of Islam. The object in barring entry of non-Muslims was obviously to prevent its recapture.

As the pilgrim proceeds towards Mecca he is asked to shave his head and beard and to don special sacred attire that consists of two seamless sheets of white cloth. One is to be worn round the waist and the other over the shoulders. Both these rites are remnants of the old Vedic practice of entering Hindu temples clean- and with holy seamless white sheets.

The main shrine in Mecca, which houses the Siva emblem, is known as the Kaaba. It is clothed in a black shroud. That custom also originates from the days when it was thought necessary to discourage its recapture by camouflaging it.

According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Kaaba has 360 images. Traditional accounts mention that one of the deities among the 360 destroyed when the place was stormed, was that of Saturn; another was of the Moon and yet another was one called Allah. That shows that in the Kaaba the Arabs worshipped the nine planets in pre-Islamic days. In India the practice of 'Navagraha' puja, that is worship of the nine planets, is still in vogue. Two of these nine are Saturn and Moon.

In India the crescent moon is always painted across the forehead of the Siva symbol. Since that symbol was associated with the Siva emblem in Kaaba it came to be grafted on the flag of Islam.

Another Hindu tradition associated with the Kaaba is that of the sacred stream Ganga (sacred waters of the Ganges river). According to the Hindu tradition Ganga is also inseparable from the Shiva emblem as the crescent moon. Wherever there is a Siva emblem, Ganga must co-exist. True to that association a sacred fount exists near the Kaaba. Its water is held sacred because it has been traditionally regarded as Ganga since pre-Islamic times (Zam-Zam water).

[Note: Even today, Muslim pilgrims who go to the Kaaba for Haj regard this Zam-Zam water with reverence and take some bottled water with them as sacred water.]

Muslim pilgrims visiting the Kaaba temple go around it seven times. In no other mosque does the circumambulation prevail. Hindus invariably circumambulate around their deities. This is yet another proof that the Kaaba shrine is a pre-Islamic Indian Shiva temple where the Hindu practice of circumambulation is still meticulously observed.

The practice of taking seven steps- known as Saptapadi in Sanskrit- is associated with Hindu marriage ceremony and fire worship. The culminating rite in a Hindu marriage enjoins upon the bride and groom to go round the sacred fire four times (but misunderstood by many as seven times). Since "Makha" means fire, the seven circumambulations also prove that Mecca was the seat of Indian fire-worship in the West Asia.

It might come as a stunning revelation to many that the word 'ALLAH' itself is Sanskrit. In Sanskrit language Allah, Akka and Amba are synonyms. They signify a goddess or mother. The term 'ALLAH' forms part of Sanskrit chants invoking goddess Durga, also known as Bhavani, Chandi and Mahishasurmardini. The Islamic word for God is., therefore, not an innovation but the ancient Sanskrit appellation retained and continued by Islam. Allah means mother or goddess and mother goddess.

One Koranic verse is an exact translation of a stanza in the Yajurveda. This was pointed out by the great research scholar Pandit Satavlekar of Pardi in one of his articles.

[Note: Another scholar points out that the following teaching from the Koran is exactly similar to the teaching of the Kena Upanishad (1.7).

The Koran:

"Sight perceives Him not. But He perceives men's sights; for He is the knower of secrets, the Aware."

Kena Upanishad:

"That which cannot be seen by the eye but through which the eye itself sees, know That to be Brahman (God) and not what people worship here (in the manifested world)."

A simplified meaning of both the above verses reads:

God is one and that He is beyond man's sensory experience.

The identity of Unani and Ayurvedic systems shows that Unani is just the Arabic term for the Ayurvedic system of healing taught to them and administered in Arabia when Arabia formed part of the Indian empire.

It will now be easy to comprehend the various Hindu customs still prevailing in West Asian countries even after the existence of Islam during the last 1300 years. Let us review some Hindu traditions which exist as the core of Islamic practice.

The Hindus have a pantheon of 33 gods. People in Asia Minor too worshipped 33 gods before the spread of Islam. The lunar calendar was introduced in West Asia during the Indian rule. The Muslim month 'Safar' signifying the 'extra' month (Adhik Maas) in the Hindu calendar. The Muslim month Rabi is the corrupt form of Ravi meaning the sun because Sanskrit 'V' changes into Prakrit 'B' (Prakrit being the popular version of Sanskrit language). The Muslim sanctity for Gyrahwi Sharif is nothing but the Hindu Ekadashi (Gyrah = elevan or Gyaarah). Both are identical in meaning.

The Islamic practice of Bakari Eed derives from the Go-Medh and Ashva-Medh Yagnas or sacrifices of Vedic times. Eed in Sanskrit means worship. The Islamic word Eed for festive days, signifying days of worship, is therefore a pure Sanskrit word. The word MESH in the Hindu zodiac signifies a lamb. Since in ancient times the year used to begin with the entry of the sun in Aries, the occasion was celebrated with mutton feasting. That is the origin of the Bakari Eed festival.

[Note: The word Bakari is an Indian language word for a goat.]

Since Eed means worship and Griha means 'house', the Islamic word Idgah signifies a 'House of worship' which is the exact Sanskrit connotation of the term. Similarly the word 'Namaz' derives from two Sanskrit roots 'Nama' and 'Yajna' (NAMa yAJna) meaning bowing and worshipping.

Vedic descriptions about the moon, the different stellar constellations and the creation of the universe have been incorporated from the Vedas in Koran part 1 chapter 2, stanza 113, 114, 115, and 158, 189, chapter 9, stanza 37 and chapter 10, stanzas 4 to 7.

Recital of the Namaz five times a day owes its origin to the Vedic injunction of Panchmahayagna (five daily worship- Panch-Maha-Yagna) which is part of the daily Vedic ritual prescribed for all individuals.

Muslims are enjoined cleanliness of five parts of the body before commencing prayers. This derives from the Vedic injuction 'Shareer Shydhyartham Panchanga Nyasah'.

Four months of the year are regarded as very sacred in Islamic custom. The devout are enjoined to abstain from plunder and other evil deeds during that period. This originates in the Chaturmasa i.e., the four-month period of special vows and austerities in Hindu tradition. Shabibarat is the corrupt form of Shiva Vrat and Shiva Ratra. Since the Kaaba has been an important centre of Shiva (Siva) worship from times immemorial, the Shivaratri festival used to be celebrated there with great gusto. It is that festival which is signified by the Islamic word Shabibarat.

Encyclopaedias tell us that there are inscriptions on the side of the Kaaba walls. What they are, no body has been allowed to study, according to the correspondence I had with an American scholar of Arabic. But according to hearsay at least some of those inscriptions are in Sanskrit, and some of them are stanzas from the Bhagavad Gita.

According to extant Islamic records, Indian merchants had settled in Arabia, particularly in Yemen, and their life and manners deeply influenced those who came in touch with them. At Ubla there was a large number of Indian settlements. This shows that Indians were in Arabia and Yemen in sufficient strength and commanding position to be able to influence the local people. This could not be possible unless they belonged to the ruling class.

It is mentioned in the Abadis i.e., the authentic traditions of Prophet Mohammad compiled by Imam Bukhari that the Indian tribe of Jats had settled in Arabia before Prophet Mohammad's times. Once when Hazrat Ayesha, wife of the Prophet, was taken ill, her nephew sent for a Jat physician for her treatment. This proves that Indians enjoyed a high and esteemed status in Arabia. Such a status could not be theirs unless they were the rulers. Bukhari also tells us that an Indian Raja (king) sent a jar of ginger pickles to the Prophet. This shows that the Indian Jat Raja ruled an adjacent area so as to be in a position to send such an insignificant present as ginger pickles. The Prophet is said to have so highly relished it as to have told his colleagues also to partake of it. These references show that even during Prophet Mohammad's times Indians retained their influential role in Arabia, which was a dwindling legacy from Vikramaditya's times.

The Islamic term 'Eed-ul-Fitr' derives from the 'Eed of Piters' that is worship of forefathers in Sanskrit tradition. In India, Hindus commemorate their ancestors during the Pitr-Paksha that is the fortnight reserved for their remembrance. The very same is the significance of 'Eed-ul-Fitr' (worship of forefathers).

The Islamic practice of observing the moon rise before deciding on celebrating the occasion derives from the Hindu custom of breaking fast on Sankranti and Vinayaki Chaturthi only after sighting the moon.

Barah Vafat, the Muslim festival for commemorating those dead in battle or by weapons, derives from a similar Sanskrit tradition because in Sanskrit 'Phiphaut' is 'death'. Hindus observe Chayal Chaturdashi in memory of those who have died in battle.

The word Arabia is itself the abbreviation of a Sanskrit word. The original word is 'Arabasthan'. Since Prakrit 'B' is Sanskrit 'V' the original Sanskrit name of the land is 'Arvasthan'. 'Arva' in Sanskrit means a horse. Arvasthan signifies a land of horses., and as well all know, Arabia is famous for its horses.

This discovery changes the entire complexion of the history of ancient India. Firstly we may have to revise our concepts about the king who had the largest empire in history. It could be that the expanse of king Vikramaditya's empire was greater than that of all others. Secondly, the idea that the Indian empire spread only to the east and not in the west beyond say, Afghanisthan may have to be abandoned. Thirdly the effeminate and pathetic belief that India, unlike any other country in the world could by some age spread her benign and beatific cultural influence, language, customs, manners and education over distant lands without militarily conquering them is baseless. India did conquer all those countries physically wherever traces of its culture and language are still extant and the region extended from Bali island in the south Pacific to the Baltic in Northern Europe and from Korea to Kaaba. The only difference was that while Indian rulers identified themselves with the local population and established welfare states, Moghuls and others who ruled conquered lands perpetuated untold atrocities over the vanquished.

'Sayar-ul-Okul' tells us that a pan-Arabic poetic symposium used to be held in Mecca at the annual Okaj fair in pre-Islamic times. All leading poets used to participate in it.

Poems considered best were awarded prizes. The best-engraved on gold plate were hung inside the temple. Others etched on camel or goatskin were hung outside. Thus for thousands of years the Kaaba was the treasure house of the best Arabian poetic thought inspired by the Indian Vedic tradition.

That tradition being of immemorial antiquity many poetic compositions were engraved and hung inside and outside on the walls of the Kaaba. But most of the poems got lost and destroyed during the storming of the Kaaba by Prophet Mohammad's troops. The Prophet's court poet, Hassan-bin-Sawik, who was among the invaders, captured some of the treasured poems and dumped the gold plate on which they were inscribed in his own home. Sawik's grandson, hoping to earn a reward carried those gold plates to Khalif's court where he met the well-known Arab scholar Abu Amir Asamai. The latter received from the bearer five gold plates and 16 leather sheets with the prize-winning poems engraved on them. The bearer was sent away happy bestowed with a good reward.

On the five gold plates were inscribed verses by ancient Arab poets like Labi Baynay, Akhatab-bin-Turfa and Jarrham Bintoi. That discovery made Harun-al-Rashid order Abu Amir to compile a collection of all earlier compositions. One of the compositions in the collection is a tribute in verse paid by Jarrham Bintoi, a renowned Arab poet, to king Vikramaditya. Bintoi who lived 165 years before Prophet Mohammad had received the highest award for the best poetic compositions for three years in succession in the pan-Arabic symposiums held in Mecca every year. All those three poems of Bintoi adjudged best were hung inside the Kaaba temple, inscribed on gold plates. One of these constituted an unreserved tribute to King Vikramaditya for his paternal and filial rule over Arabia. That has already been quoted above.

Pre-Islamic Arabian poet Bintoi's tribute to king Vikramaditya is a decisive evidence that it was king Vikramaditya who first conquered the Arabian Peninsula and made it a part of the Indian Empire. This explains why starting from India towards the west we have all Sanskrit names like Afghanisthan (now Afghanistan), Baluchisthan, Kurdisthan, Tajikiathan, Uzbekisthan, Iran, Sivisthan, Iraq, Arvasthan, Turkesthan (Turkmenisthan) etc.

Historians have blundered in not giving due weight to the evidence provided by Sanskrit names pervading over the entire west Asian region. Let us take a contemporary instance. Why did a part of India get named Nagaland even after the end of British rule over India? After all historical traces are wiped out of human memory, will a future age historian be wrong if he concludes from the name Nagaland that the British or some English speaking power must have ruled over India? Why is Portuguese spoken in Goa (part of India), and French in Pondichery (part of India), and both French and English in Canada? Is it not because those people ruled over the territories where their languages are spoken? Can we not then justly conclude that wherever traces of Sanskrit names and traditions exist Indians once held sway? It is unfortunate that this important piece of decisive evidence has been ignored all these centuries.

Another question which should have presented itself to historians for consideration is how could it be that Indian empires could extend in the east as far as Korea and Japan, while not being able to make headway beyond Afghanisthan? In fact land campaigns are much easier to conduct than by sea. It was the Indians who ruled the entire West Asian region from Karachi to Hedjaz and who gave Sanskrit names to those lands and the towns therein, introduce their pantheon of the fire-worship, imparted education and established law and order.

It may be that Arabia itself was not part of the Indian empire until king Vikrama , since Bintoi says that it was king Vikrama who for the first time brought about a radical change in the social, cultural and political life of Arabia. It may be that the whole of West Asia except Arabia was under Indian rule before Vikrama. The latter added Arabia too to the Indian Empire. Or as a remote possibility it could be that king Vikramaditya himself conducted a series of brilliant campaigns annexing to his empire the vast region between Afghanisthan and Hedjaz.

Incidentally this also explains why king Vikramaditya is so famous in history. Apart from the nobility and truthfulness of heart and his impartial filial affection for all his subjects, whether Indian or Arab, as testified by Bintoi, king Vikramaditya has been permanently enshrined in the pages of history because he was the world's greatest ruler having the largest empire. It should be remembered that only a monarch with a vast empire gets famous in world history. Vikram Samvat (calendar still widely in use in India today) which he initiated over 2000 years ago may well mark his victory over Arabia, and the so called Kutub Minar (Kutub Tower in Delhi), a pillar commemorating that victory and the consequential marriage with the Vaihika (Balkh) princess as testified by the nearby iron pillar inscription.

A great many puzzles of ancient world history get automatically solved by a proper understanding of these great conquests of king Vikramaditya. As recorded by the Arab poet Bintoi, Indian scholars, preachers and social workers spread the fire-worship ceremony, preached the Vedic way of life, manned schools, set up Ayurvedic (healing) centres, trained the local people in irrigation and agriculture and established in those regions a democratic, orderly, peaceful, enlightened and religious way of life. That was of course, a Vedic Hindu way of life.

It is from such ancient times that Indian Kshtriya royal families, like the Pahalvis and Barmaks, have held sway over Iran and Iraq. It is those conquests, which made the Parsees Agnihotris i.e., fire-worshippers. It is therefore that we find the Kurds of Kurdisthan speaking a Sanskritised dialect, fire temples existing thousands of miles away from India, and scores of sites of ancient Indian cultural centres like Navbahar in West Asia and the numerous viharas in Soviet Russia spread throughout the world. Ever since so many viharas are often dug up in Soviet Russia, ancient Indian sculptures are also found in excavations in Central Asia. The same goes for West Asia.

[Note: Ancient Indian sculptures include metal statues of the Hindu deity Ganesh (the elephant headed god); the most recent find being in Kuwait].

Unfortunately these chapters of world history have been almost obliterated from public memory. They need to be carefully deciphered and rewritten. When these chapters are rewritten they might change the entire concept and orientation of ancient history.

In view of the overwhelming evidence led above, historians, scholars, students of history and lay men alike should take note that they had better revise their text books of ancient world history. The existence of Hindu customs, shrines, Sanskrit names of whole regions, countries and towns and the Vikramaditya inscriptions reproduced at the beginning are a thumping proof that Indian Kshatriyas once ruled over the vast region from Bali to Baltic and Korea to Kaaba in Mecca, Arabia at the very least.

Monday, August 25, 2008

Krishna Jayanthi on 3 days!!!

This year too, like many times in the past, Krishna Jayanthi is celebrated on three days.

Painting by Ravi varma.

The reason for this is that the rules and rationale in fixing the birthday of Krishna

are differently followed by various schools of thought.

Some stick to the thithi while others to the birth star.

In this post let me look into some rationale from astrology point of view.

Thithi is not considered for birth days,

as thithi is connected with austerities or ritualistic practices to be done.

A thithi denotes the distance traveled by the moon.

At particular distances, it has been found to be beneficial for certain practices

to get maximum benefit.

In this way only, Amavasya is being reserved exclusively for pithru tarpaN.

Akshaya thritheeya


is found to give maximum results for dana, japa or meditation.

Another occasion is Ekadasi vratha.

Yet another occasion is Gokulashtami.

Fasting done on Ashtami in the dark phase of the moon in the month of Shravana

will help one a realize all desires.

That is why Gokulashtami is celebrated

on the thithi in which Krishna was born.

Since thithis will benefit ritualistic practices done with expectation of a fruit or benefit,

Krishna’s birth day is celebrated on Ashtami.

But birth day is not connected to thithis.

Birth day is that day when the moon passes through the star in the zodiac sign

that it did at the time of the birth of the person.

As such, the star in the month in which the person is born is the birth star

and the day on which this happens is the birth day.

Krishna’s birth star was Rohini

and the day of this star in the month of Shravana is considered as the birthday of Krishna.

Here again a dilemma comes –

whether to celebrate the birthday on the day

when Rohini is there for most part.

Here astrology gives a clarification.

According to astrological texts,

Savanamana calculation is to be used for the purpose of festivals.

This Savanamana takes into account sun-rise timing.

According to this system,

to identify a day with a particular star,

that star must be still traversed by the moon at sun rise.

The star may have started on the previous day – but after sun rise.

That star may have been present for most part of the day in the previous day.

But since that star was not present at sun rise of the previous day,

the previous day can not be identified with that star.

When the star is still present at the time of sun rise the next day,

as though sanctified by sun’s rays,

only the next day is said to be the day of the star.

This is referred to as ‘piccham’ – ‘the remaining part’,

and if the star remains the next day also to see the sun rise,

then the celebrations connected with the star must be done on the next day only.

That is how the Krishna Jayanthi has come to be celebrated

on the 3 rd day, to day this year –

with Rohini remaining today

and Rohini seeing sun-rise only today.

The star may have been present for a few hours today, compared to yesterday.

But yesterday, the star at sun rise was Krittika and not Rohini.

So yesterday can not be considered as day of Rohini.

Yesterday was the day of Krittika.

But those taking up Kaarthigai - vratham

would start at the time of start of Krittika,

and end it at the end of the Krittika.

That is why you will find almanacs mentioning that

krittikai vratha started day- before yesterday

when moon entered the asterism of krittika.

But in the case of Rohini, it is not Rohini vratha.

It is Krishna's birth day.

That is why it is celebrated on the day of Rohini, sanctified by sun-rise.

That is the rationale.

If we start considering the star depending on its duration in a day,

we may encounter practical problems in computing time based on star.

There are times when a star will see 3 sunrises –

This is called ‘Thri-dinasprik’.

There are times when a star may not see sunrise at all.

The star may rise (moon’s entry into it) after sunrise and

set before the next sun rise.

This is called ‘Avama’ or ‘Avamakam ‘.

One can notice these words in the almanac.

Thri-dinasprik and Avama are avoided for auspicious purposes.

In the case of birthdays, the day when the star is present at sunrise,

it is considered as the birth day.

In celebrating Krishna Jayanthi,

the different days are chosen with respective reasons.

Fasting is an important aspect of Krishna’s birthday.

Those expecting material benefits must fast on Janmashtami

and break their fast (pAraNai) at the end of the Ashtami thithi.

They celebrate Krishna’s birth day on Ashtami thithi.

Those who are free from material desires, should fast

on the Birthday (birth star) of Krishna,

do regular pooja followed by

pooja to Krishna.

They must Meditate on Krishna

Balarama, Vasudeva, Devaki, Nada gopa and Yashoda

till moon rise.

Once the moon appears in the horizon,

arghya of tender coconut water must be offered to moon.

Moon is prayed as the Milk of the ocean and

Moon with Rohini is offered the arghya.

Then they must continue

devotional services to Krishna

by offering food and fruits of the season.

Sleep is forbidden

and the fast is broken only on the next morning,

by taking food along with other devotees of Vishnu.

This kind of celebration is said to

remove all sins and fulfills all desires.

In this case, the moon may not be in the asterism of Rohini

at moonrise.

But it was, when Krishna was born.

The same condition can not happen every year.

But the same rationale is used in celebration of Krishna’s birthday.

This is explained in the astrological text “Kalaprakasika”

A separate chapter is devoted on Shree jayanthi and how to celebrate it.

(can be read in this link),M1

The fear of Ashtami – Navami

Generally Ashtami and Navami are the days meant for meditation.

On these two days, the moon is at right angles to the earth

in such a way that the combined effect of both the sun and the moon

on earth and our mind is nil.

Any thought force emanating from us can be free of celestial disturbance.

That is why these two days are reserved for spiritual thoughts.

Since no other time in a paksha (fortnight) is so free of Luni-solar pulls,

our elders thought it fit to forget the mundane activities and

concentrate on God’s thoughts on these two days.

But this was forgotten in course of time

and unfortunately these two days have become dreaded days now-a-days.

Medicinal astrology also recommends Ashtami for starting

any new treatment of medicines or surgeries.

The combined effect of the sun and the moon on the fluids in our body

will be minimal at this time.

Krishna’s horoscope.

Kalaprakasika also states the asterisms at Krishna’s birth.

Brahma Samhita is quoted in which Pitamaha

(Pitamaha is generally considered as the Sun God or Brahma)

tells Narada the birth time asterisms of Krishna.

This is almost to similar to Rama’s horoscope

with 5 planets in exaltation and two planets in own houses.

A very rare occurrence indeed.

Horoscope of Krishna as per Brahma samhita

But this is different from what BV Raman has presented.

(discussed in my post)

BV Raman arrived at the horoscope based on texts like

Srimad Bhagavatham and Harivanmdsam.

It is intriguing that he missed

Kalaprakasika (a well known book of astrology) information.

I am presenting the horoscope given by BV Raman here.

It is wished that someone with know-how in tracking the times

based on planetary positions, take note of the horoscopes given here

and help us know the dates accordingly

ands also to arrive at the accurate horoscope.

Horoscope of Krishna by BV Raman’s horoscope

Friday, August 22, 2008

5 reasons why the world will not end on 2012.

The doomsday prediction is doing rounds now
based on the Mayan calendar of the end of a cycle on 21- 12 – 2012.
According to the Dresden Codex, one of the Mayan books,
the Great Cycle started on the 11th of August 3114 BC
which is referred to as the Birth of Venus.
This will come to an end on 21st December, 2012.
This period is considered as the Sacred Tree or the Tree of Life.
Yet another ancient Mayan prophecy says
that the new world of consciousness will be born on the occasion of
the Venus Passage on June 5-6, 2012.

This is the gist of the information we have from the surviving Mayan works,
sparking off interest in the academia of many disciplines.

The recent spurt in interest has been fueled by some scientific data available to us.
From the field of science we hear of a probable disaster to our earth
in the near future
triggered by any one of the following factors :-

(1) the solar storms,
(2) the atomic smasher which is feared to cause havoc
when it will become operational in 2012,
(3) the probability of the eruption of the Yellow stone volcano in the United states,
(4) the expectation that an impending catastrophe that recurs periodically,
is due any time now.
(5) a sudden shift in earth’s magnetic poles.

While I was not initially keen on pursuing this 2012 Mayan stuff,
reserving it for a later date, perhaps to 2012, hoping to blog until then,
I decided to change my opinion after receiving many times
this stuff on 7 reasons why the world will end on 2012
coinciding with the Mayan date ( what the Mayans meant, no one knows exactly).

The reasons are two-fold.
As a lover of science having its base on proofs,
I can not buy the predictions given in the name of science
which have no basis even for an empty argument.
Another reason is that the Mayan prediction is not about a calamity
as I can see it from many angles – including a valid one
from the Vedic connections.
Hence this post.

It can be definitively said that the world would not come to an end 2012.
The 5 reasons to support this are given below.

1. The concerns of Science are always there!

Taking up the scientist’s worries first,
all the five reasons listed above from the field of science are always there.
The Solar storms have been peaking and ebbing continuously for all times.
They are known to have caused disturbances in the atmosphere,
in climatic conditions and in the broadcast networks.
But their potency to wreck havoc globally has not been proved, nor even hypothesized.
Whatever effect that is related to it (solar storms)
may not be to the tune of wiping off life to a greater extent.

Taking up the other two issues,
it can be argued that the unexpected side-effect of
the particle accelerator or the Yellow stone volcano
can have effect only on a limited area.
In contrast, poverty and ill-health have caused
greater havoc on human lives globally!.

The expectation of an impending catastrophe also has no basis other than
being confined to an arm-chair prediction.
There is no reason to believe that such a catastrophe
will time itself on 21st December of 2012.
The probable way such a catastrophe can manifest itself is
by means of collision of some asteroids.
But then the current know-how is such that
we can predict it fairly in advance and do the needful to deflect it.

One thing we can not control is the Nature’s fury in the form of earth quakes and storms.
But then they can not become end-of- the –world causes.
We have been braving them at some part of the world regularly.
The impact of such natural disasters to finish the globe
is not even a theoretical reality.

The last one is the probability of a pole-shift.
This is still a hypothesis that is yet to be worked on. / understood.
It is still not discernible how such a pole shift will happen.
The poles are moving gradually – that is a not cause for disasters of large scale.
Gradual movement or shift will cause gradual changes only,
which will be manageable.

A sudden shift will look like as though the world loses its balance
and does a Topsy-turvy.
This is impossible by the yardsticks of science.
There must be an external sudden force to throw the world out if its balance.
Such an external force can be from outer space in the form of asteroids etc.,
which can predicted by our current know-how.

But here I have something to tell on the last 2 issues
( asteroid fall and polar shift)
from the Hindu texts.

Something of a kind of after-effect of a catastrophe was reported in Mahabharatha
before the start of war at Kurukshethra.
The description by sage Vyasa of the disturbance at all levels –
on the earth and in the sky and in the planets looks strange
and is somewhat indicative of an aftermath of a sudden change
in the earth’s motion (disturbance at the poles?)
or the impact of a massive collision by an asteroid.

One can find the description of the disturbances in the
sections 2 and 3 in chapter 6 (Bhishma parva) of Mahabharatha.
Of particular interest is the narration of 2 changes noted in the sky.
One is about the change in the position of the star Arundhathi (Alcor)
with reference to its companion star Vasishta (Mizar)
in the constellation of Sapta Rishi Mandala ( Ursa Major)
These two are a celebrated couple of the Vedic times and
are known for their togetherness.
The aura attached to Arundhathi as one who followed her husband’s foot-steps
is such that it is a ritual even today in Hindu marriages
to sight her before the first night of the couple (1)

This star is supposed to be always seen near Vasishta even after thousands of years,
since they two move in the same direction and speed relative to each other.

The surprising element in Vyasa’s narration is that
Arudhathi had moved forward, pushing Vasishta behind her!
The wife who used to always follow her husband has started
to lead him from the front!!
Vyasa says, “ She, O king, who is celebrated over the three worlds
and is applauded by the righteous,
even that (constellation) Arundhati keepeth (her lord) Vasistha on her back” (2)

This is impossible to happen unless the earth’s axis / inclination had altered.
In the same verse, the sage says that dark patch on the moon also has changed.
“The sign of the deer in the Moon hath deviated from its usual position.
A great terror is indicated. Even though the sky is cloudless,
a terrible roar is heard there.
The animals are all weeping and their tears are falling fast.'" (3)

The deer on the moon is the grayish shade of the craters as seen from the earth.
This shade has been viewed differently by different people in the olden days.
The Chinese consider it as a toad.
The Europeans see it as a mare.
But the connection with deer as told by Vyasa has a valid reason.
The behavior of the deer is always connected with the movement of the moon.
The deer hunters are known to observe the deer’s behavior with reference to moon
to hunt the deer.

Since hunting was a common practice in olden days in India,
it is probable to think that the people had viewed the image on the moon as a deer.

What is of interest here is that the moon and the star Arundhathi
as seen from the earth had deviated a little
or were not the same as before.
The closer planets such as Mercury and Venus also had shifted a little backward
This could have happened only if the earth’s tilt had altered.

There is room to think that something drastic happened at this time
The new-moon happened on the 13th day after which these changes were noted.
The sage even says of hearing explosions from Kailasa, Mandra and Himavat mountains.
The animals and birds were exhibiting strange behaviors and
the seas and wind were behaving strangely.

All these suggest a massive hit by an asteroid somewhere on the earth –
though not on India proper, giving rise to such effects in the Indian land mass.
The hit might have been very strong as to even the shake the earth and
even altered its tilt.
This view is worth taking up for research in corroboration with
description from Mahabharata, for,
it is now known that a massive asteroid hit Austria and Indian ocean
sometime around 5000 years ago.

Mahabharata war too happened 5000 years ago. (4)

It is also possible to infer from the description that a wave of earth quakes
were happening at that time.
The sage tells of roaring noises in the sky, in the sea and in the mountains of Himalayas.
It seems the world had been in a grip of a wave of calamities
around that time.

For a global level calamity to happen, the sure bets are asteroid collisions
triggering off massive earth quakes at many places on the earth,
or due to large scale tectonic disturbances.

About the former, the scientists can caution us beforehand.
About the later no one can say that such earthquakes can happen
only on the appointed time of 21-12-2012!
They can happen at anytime.

From this we deduce that the risk of a catastrophe of global scale is very less.
The fears and concerns from our scientific knowledge are always there and
they can not be pin pointed at a specific time.

(2) The Sun’s location in our galaxy on 21-12-2012 is safe!

The Mayans seem to have precisely seen a safe location for the sun on that day.
That is similar to what we call vernal equinox –
the point of intersection of the ecliptic with the galactic equator.
The sun will be passing a point of intersection of the galactic center on that day.

John Major Jenkins tells us this in his introduction:

"The eclipse is the path traveled by the sun, moon, and planets through the sky. Twelve constellations lie along the ecliptic, and the sun passes through all twelve during the course of one year. The ecliptic cross over the Milky Way at a 60 degree angle near the constellation Sagittarius. As such, it forms a cross with the Milky Way, and this cosmic cross was called the Sacred Tree by the ancient Maya. (The cross form was also known as the "crossroads." Amazingly, the center of this cosmic cross, that is right where the ecliptic crosses over the Milky Way is exactly where the December solstice sun will be in A.D. 2012. This alignment occurs only once every 25,800 years.

"The Milky Way is observed as a bright, wide band of stars arching through the sky. In the clear skies of ancient Mesoamerica, many dark, blotchy areas could be observed along the Milky Way's length. These are "dark cloud" formations caused by interstellar dust. The most prominent of these is called the "dark-rift" or the "Great Cleft" of the Milky Way. It looks like a dark road running along the Milky Way, and it points right at the cosmic crossing point, the center of the Maya Sacred Tree, right where the sun will be in 2012! The Maya called this dark-rift the Black Road, or the Road to the Underworld. They seem to have imagined it as a portal to another world, and the December solstice sun can enter it only in A.D. 2012.

"The area of the sky where all of these symbols and celestial objects converge is the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. This was perhaps the most astounding thing I discovered. The par of the Milky Way that the December solstice sun will conjunct is also where the center of our Galaxy (the Galactic Center) is located. It is the cosmic womb from which new stars are born, and from which everything in our Galaxy, including humans, came.”

This location coincides with the center of our galaxy.
The sun moves in a wavy path and moves up and down in its sojourn.
Scientists can theorize that the movement upward that happened 40 million years ago
coincided with dinosaur extinction.
They foresee a similar catastrophe now as 40 million years have passed.
But I don’t foresee that.

The movement of the sun is such that now it is crossing the centre of the galaxy
on its downward movement.
We must note the Mayan description that
2012 is the time of ‘Road to Underworld.’
The underworld is about the plane below the center of our galaxy.
The plane above the horizontal of the galactic cross-section is known as North or uttar.
The plane below is south or dakshin in Hindu texts.
The sun is now moving on its way to dakshin
and will be crossing the galactic center on 2012
on its downward journey.

There is an opinion among scientists
whether the movement in far-off uttar (upward) ranges
that happened 40 million years ago exposed the sun
to cosmic rays and bombardments
from outer space, resulting in extinction of dinosaurs.
In extreme upward and downward locations the galactic cover around the sun is less,
thereby exposing it to receive radiation or bombardment from outers space.
Compared to such locations, the sun will be in a safe location on 2012,
with minimum risk of outer space rummaging.

(3) The Planetary combination on 21-12-2012 is really good!

Usually December is time of the year
when the sun will be conjoining the center of our galaxy (Sagittarius)
and we (earth will be at the farthest point away from the galactic centre.
This coincides with what we call as “Vaikunta Ekadasi”.
This is a vulnerable time for earthquakes.
World’s worst earth quakes have happened in the last 10 days of December
coinciding with Vaikunta Ekadasi ( 11 day position of the waxing moon)
On 21-12-2012, the moon will be in navami (9th day ) in the star, Revathy.
On 23 rd, it will be Vaikunta Ekadasi day.
The one week from then onwards, it is a vulnerable period.
But I don’t foresee any problem on these times, precisely because
no major planets are in line with this galactic center.
Only the sun will be passing this part of the sky.

In contrast, on the fatal day of tsunami that impacted nearly
one third of the globe on 26-12-2005,
Sun in Sagittarius was opposed by moon in Gemini
with Saturn, the lord of death
in close quarters in cancer in retrogression.

But on 21-12-2012,
the three major planets are in positions of positive strength.
The Saturn and Mars will be close to their exaltation and
Jupiter will be in retrogression, thereby acquiring positive strength
as per Vedic astrology.
They together indicate a spurt in spiritual strength,
physical well being and intellectual strength.

This is perhaps indicated by the Mayans as the new cycle of growth!
With the moon entering Aries in the next 2 days (Vaikunta Ekadasi),
it is time of prosperity and spiritual calmness.

We must also note that the Mayans have said of a cycle of creation and destruction.
Any cycle will have 2 phases,
one ascending and one descending.
Creation followed by destruction.
When the cycle ends it means the destruction phase has come to an end
and the newer phase of creation has to start.

If we look at the Mayan history, we can see that their fall
happened in the second half of this 5200 year cycle.
Their fall must have started around 550BC.
As such the 2012 marks a new phase of creation and growth.

(4) The world will not end in 2012 because it is not the time of ‘prayala’
(dissolution / catastrophe) as per Hindu Thought!
Calamities are predicted to happen at regular intervals according to Hindu thought.
There is daily prayala - some calamity happening at some part of the world everyday.
Even sleep is a type of pralaya which makes the living look like dead.

There is Kalpa pralaya that happens at the end of Macro level creation –
on the end of the day of Brahma deva.
This happens at the end of 4,32,00,00,000 years
which is roughly equal to 20 rounds of the sun around the galactic center
(Science calculates one round to be roughly around 220 million years).
At this time, the entire creation is lost
or goes under water (or some fluid state)

There is manvantra pralaya that happens every 30,67,20,000 years.
Habitations and species will be lost during this pralaya
Mankind will heavily suffer.

There is yuga pralaya which was similar to what was described in Mahabharatha.
This coincides with the disturbances noticed in Mahaharatha
and the asteroid collision reported 5000 years ago.
The whole of India suffered at that time.
There were floods in Dwaraka and off the coast of Kanya kumari.
There is a probability that the entire world suffered at this time.
It was because it was the time of end of an epoch or yuga.

Dwapara yuga ended and Kali yuga started around 5000 years ago.
Interestingly the end of the yuga (epoch) or the beginning of Kali yuga
coincides with the Mayan calendar of beginning of the new cycle
which is going to come to an end in 2012!
Dwapar yuga ended and Kali yuga started on 3101 BC and
Mayan’s new cycle started on 3114 BC!
This period was marked with a pralaya.
But the same fate will not happen now.
Because the pralaya or destruction is associated with Yuga sandhi
(conjunction between yugas)
The Mayan cycle though it started with Kali yuga
is not ending with the yuga of the Hindu cycle.
No prediction of a calamity in 2012 according to Hindu Thought.

(5) Mayan thought is an off-shoot of Hindu Thought
that does not foresee a calamity in 2012.

There are many parallels in Hindu Thought with Mayan Thought.
The principle of Time measurement of Mayans are also part of
the 10 types of Time measurements of the Vedic times.
They are
Saua mana,
savanna mana,
chandra mana,
Nakshthra mana,
Pithru mana,
Deva mana,
Manvanthra mana,
Brahma mana,
Brihaspathya mana
Asura mana.

Of these, the last two make a striking relationship.
Brihaspathya mana is about Jupiter
whereas Asura mana is about Venus!
Venus is the base of Mayan calculation of time.
Brihaspathy is Jupiter who was considered as the teacher for devas (gods) of the North.
Venus is known as Shukra who was the teacher for demons of the South.
From vedic texts we come to know that a common ancestry of seers known as
‘Bhrugvangiras’ got divided into Bhrugu and Angiras.
Bhrugu’s disciple was Shukra, who became teacher for asuras (demons)
And from Angiras came Brihaspathy who became the teacher for devas.

The enmity between them was endless
and the Asuras were driven out of the domain of Devas (from North).
The time calculation followed by the devas was that given by Brihaspathy.
That was about a cycle of 5 rounds of 12 years each.
One cycle is about the time taken by Jupiter to complete one round around the zodiac.
This takes 12 years.
In this way Jupiter completes 5 rounds in 60 years.
Each year of these 60 years has been given a name,
starting from ‘Vijaya’
Today Brihaspathya mana is not in vogue in India
but we use these names only for the solar months
starting from Prabhava.
This information is contained in Surya Siddhantha.
These names were originally given for Jupiter’s cycle as per Brihaptahya mana.
This cycle starts with the year Vijaya which falls in 2013!
That is, the Brihaspathyamana has same beginning with Mayan calender.

The Asura mana is based on the rotation of Venus.
This is exactly what the Mayans have been following.
In India this mana is not being followed, presumably because,
this country was considered to be in the North,
following Brihaspathya mana.
Brihaspathya mana was followed in Vedic times.
The Asura mana is also about a cycle of 5 rounds of movement of Venus.
The Mayan cycle in discussion is about a Great cycle of 5,200 years.
We must find out the basal unit of this calculation to know how this has been made.

The similarities don not end here.
The sage Bhrugu, the teacher of Shukra was known for certain things
that seem to have some connection with the evolution of Mayan race.
The sage was a very learned one but he ran into a curse from Lakshmi,
the giver of all riches.
The story can be read here:-

As a result of the curse, Bhrugu and his clan were not to obtain any riches.
To undo the harm he has done to his race by inviting this curse,
Bhrugu made a marathon effort to build knowledge of astrology and
gave it to his disciples so that they can amass wealth on that knowledge.
He gave that knowledge to Shukracharya or Venus from whom
it went on to others including his disciple Maya.

The prime motive from then onwards for Bhrugu was to ensure
that his people got riches and his aim of astrology was to attain fructification of results,
come whatever be the obstacles.
Shukra-neeti is primarily Raja-neeti which was materialistic and was about power.
In contrast Brihaspathy preached that any action done by a person
should not result in bad karma for the person.
Guru-neeti was spiritualistic.

Bhrugu begot Lakshmi Herself as his daughter and
his lineage was blessed with riches.(5)
Friday (the day of Venus) thus got associated with Lakshmi and riches.

The Mayans also possessed gold and other riches.
Bhrugu and Shukra were no ordinary persons.

Lord Krishna Proclaimed in Gita, the Song Divine,

"Of Maharishis, I am Bhrigu”,

and again so "Among the wise, I am Shukracharya".

Lord Vasistha told Rama that both the Rishi's

were "living liberated guides of men by their knowledge

of all that was to be known".

This connection of Bhrugu and Shukra (Venus) has gone to Maya, the super architect.

The best vasthu book in India is Mayamatha, containing the rules for construction.

Vasthu is about all gods who reside in a land

and about how to make use of these Gods’ presence

to one’s advantage – a truly materialistic way of seeing Gods!

The Mayan architecture is contained in Mayamatha

and other texts on Vasthu and are still followed in India.

Maya and Vishwakarma were associated with architecture

in many places in Hindu stories.

Nala who built Sethu also was a descendant of Vishwakarma.

Vishwakarma is used to be associated with devas.

Whereas Maya was considered as a ‘mlecha’

(a foreigner or one belonging to outside Aryavartha, Bharath)

The Matsyapurana refers to eighteen sages proficient in Vaastu:
Bhrigu, Atri, Vasishta, Viswakarma, Maya,
Narada, Nagnajita, Visalaksha, Purandhara, Brahma, Kumara,
Nandisa, Saunaka, Garga, Vasudeva, Aniruddha,
Sukra and Brihaspati are the eighteen celebrated authors
referred to as Vaastu Sastropadesakas or instructors in the science of Vaastu.
Note the names Bhrugu, Maya and Shukra (Venus) in this group.
Shukra Niti is said to dwell on structural aspects of architecture.

The noted architect of temples of India, Mr Ganapathy Sthapathy
has noted the similarities in Indian Mayamatha vasthu sastra with Mayan architecture.
The two seem to have the same origin.

The similarity continues.

According to Puranas, Maya was the teacher of demons and
Brihaspathy was the teacher of gods.
Maya was a Shiva worshiper with tough austerities
Note that the Mayans follow tough rituals and even make blood shed –
something done by Shiva worshipers.
He built a fine city at Tripura
which was later destroyed by Shiva.
According to Puranas like Brahmaanda purana,
Maya was spared by Shiva who went on to destroy Tripura,
since he was a devotee of Shiva.
After that Maya went to live under the waters.
It is worth remembering here that Maharishi Bhrugu was said to have
lived in what is Bharuch today on the banks of river Narmada.
It is possible that his disciple Maya who lost Tripura went out of the country
through this place and was lost in the seas.
This is what could have been meant by the Puranic narration of Maya
going under the seas.
He would have found his place at the present day Mexico
which is on the other side of Bharatha varsha.

Interestingly, Tripura is a place in Nagaland.
And there is sect of Mayanas who claim that they had come from Nagaland in India!

One of the most dominant ethnic groups, Kekichi Maya,
has always had special attraction for India in the past
as their forefathers have told them that the "Naga tribes of Nagaland"
were one of the four original branches of the Maya civilization.

The inference we can draw from all these is that
the Mayans were part of Hindu past (sanatana dharma)
and were separated from the mainstream
and were with Shukra (Venus) as their preacher.

The Asura tag they had with them was to do their location
or with their asura tendency.
Asura or demonic tendency is explained in Brihadharanyaka upanishad.
Those who take pleasure in hurting others were known as Asuras.
This perhaps explains some crude customs of ancient Mayans.

"For the Maya, blood sacrifice was necessary for the survival of both gods and people, sending human energy skyward and receiving divine power in return. A king used an obsidian knife or a stingray spine to cut his penis, allowing the blood to fall onto paper held in a bowl. Kings' wives also took part in this ritual by pulling a rope with thorns attached through their tongues. The blood-stained paper was burned, the rising smoke directly communicating with the Sky World."

The Asuras were identified as those who lived in the dakshin part
(translated as South) of the world .
But in Hindu parlance, dakshin means which is below the plane of existence.
Since the mayan land was below the plane of Aryavartha,
they could have been called as asuras.

Their materialistic pursuits also made them called as asuras.
Maya had been the one who received teachings of the cosmos from sun god
in Surya siddhnatha.

The interaction with them has been periodically seen in the Hindu past.
Perhaps with the decline of their civilization in 550 BC coinciding
with the descending phase of the Great cycle,
they lost touch with India.

Perhaps the New Cycle in 2012 will find a resurgence of
Mayan Thought in this modern world.

- jayasree

On Indian connection

There are two specific archaeological discoveries pertaining to 761 AD, about which most Mexican historians are silent, that attract our attention as possible links of Maya civilization to ancient India. The first one is a wall panel (Panel No. 3 of Temple 0-13, at Piedras Negras, Guatemala; reproduced as Plate 69, page 343 of 'The Ancient Maya' by S.G. Morley) belonging to the Later Classic Stage of Mexican history, associated with the peaking of Maya architecture and sculpture. Mexican historians have not given any interpretation of this panel.

It appears that the scene depicted in the panel relates to the great Indian epic 'Ramayana'.

It shows a king sitting on the throne and one maidservant with two children standing on the right side of the throne. A guard stands behind the three. On the other side of the king, three important personages are standing whereas the vassal chiefs and important feudatories are sitting in front of the throne. The king on the throne is believed to be Suryavanshi Ram with his three illustrious brothers standing by his side. The two little children are his two sons with a maid and a guard behind them. Amongst the three persons on the right, two are engaged in a discussion whereas the third one, apparently Lakshman, is standing with a bold, brave and confident demeanour which was characteristic of him. The above panel is a beautiful piece of sculpture and an evidence of great Mayan heritage, their artistic taste and superior creative ability and, above all, an archaeological evidence to prove India's link with Mexico in the 8th century at least. The artistic design and postures of the figures carved can be compared to those found at Ajanta and Ellora caves in India. This interpretation, however, remains only a plausible one till the hieroglyphics and frescoes surrounding the wall panel are deciphered.

Another archaeological discovery at the same place i.e. Piedras Negras, Guatemala, is a stone stela (No. 12, Plate No. 18, page 61 of 'The Ancient Maya' by S.G. Morley). A mythological scene has been carved in this stela, depicting the architectural and artistic maturity of the Maya people of the Classic Stage (594 - 889 AD). There is a beautiful image of a deity with eight hands (ashtabhuja). The art style is discernibly Indian as in no other religion of the world deities of this type were worshipped. It may be mentioned that the ruling dynasty of Mexico at the time of the conquest by Spaniards was 'Aztec' or Ashtak (Eight). The evidence in the form of such images leaves little doubt about the presence of Indian culture amongst the ancient Mexicans. The stela pertains to the period of more than eight centuries before Columbus set foot on the soil of the so-called New World.

The place where these pieces have been discovered - Piedras Negras - appears to be a distorted form of 'Priyadarsh Nagraj' in Sanskrit, as has been the case with so many words distorted by European pronunciation. These stone sculptures are adornments of a Mayan temple and depict some popular mythology prevalent amongst the people of the time. Both human sacrifice and idolatry were much in practice amongst Maya people. Morley has given a detailed and vivid account of Maya culture and society in his book 'The Ancient Maya', profusely quoting Bishop Diego de Landa.

Bishop Landa states that Maya people "…had a very great number of idols and temples which were magnificent in their own fashion and besides the community temples, the lords, priests and leading men also had oratories and idols in their houses where they made their prayers and offerings in private". Not only of gods but idols of even animals and insects were prepared by Maya people, who believed in immortality of soul and afterlife. This definitely smacks of an Indian connection.

The article on the reasons why the world will end on 2012 :-

References :-

(1) The verse on Arudhathi said on the occasion of sighting the star on the first night.
The husband says,
“When the Seven Sages gave Arundhati precedence over the Krittikas
and made her position secure,
the six Krittikas accepted the leadership of Arundhati (the seventh);
may this wife of mine flourish as the eighth (of those stars).”

(2) MB 6-2- 31
yā caiā viśrutā rājas trailokye sādhu samatā
arundhatī tayāpy ea vasiṣṭha pṛṣṭhata kta

(3) MB – 6- 2- 32 & 33
vyāvtta lakma somasya bhaviyati mahad bhayam
anabhre ca mahāghora stanita śrūyate 'niśam
vāhanānā ca rudatā prapatanty aśrubindava

(4) Indian texts are keeping a track of the epochs and we are still using that time.
Another source is Aryabhatta ‘s works where he has recorded his times
with reference to the Kali yuga which started on 3122 BC,
3 decades after the Kurukshethra war.

(5) Namosthu devyai bhrugu nandanayai, ...
Salutations to her who is daughter of Bhrigu, ...
Dhavalathamamsuka gandha maya shobhe, ...
(from Kanaka dhara sthothram by Adhi Shankara)

(6) Matsyapurana (Chap. CCL II - 2 to 4)