Sunday, January 13, 2019
The research findings to an interesting question, how the Universe looked like before the Big Bang was published in livescience.com recently. The researchers of Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario worked on this question on the premise that the Universe is fundamentally symmetrical and therefore it is possible to extrapolate how it looked before the Big Bang. They came to the conclusion that it was the mirror image of what it became after the Big Bang. In simple understanding an image such as the one shown below is what was meant by them.
What we see now as an expanding Universe from an explosion from a singularity must be reversed in the opposite in pre-Big Bang. That reached the point of singularity after exploding and expanding but the report stops short of telling whether it contracted - as only that could eventually lead to a singularity. What happened after that is what everyone is aware of in a self-explaining term – the Big Bang.
Reading this report brought to my mind some interesting analogies used in Upanishads on creation and some common-place knowledge of things around us, the basis of which is the simplest idea that macrocosm is mirrored in microcosm or vice versa. The same idea is told in Tamil Siddha songs as ‘Aṇḍatthil uḷḷade, piṇḍam; Piṇḍatthil uḷḷade aṇḍam’. The most popular example for this can be drawn from the way planets revolve around the sun, much in similar way as electrons moving around the nucleus in an atom. It is in this way the galaxies also rotate, giving scope for an infinitely spread out orbits for cosmic material vertically and horizontally. In this model a pivotal axis at the centre is foreseen which I think is true going by the Nataraja concept of ever existing and infinitely spread out cosmos.
To read the details, click HERE
Looking for similar analogies for the question taken up for the research mentioned above, I think the shape of DNA - the basic component for propagation and multiplicity of life might contain the secret –is ideal on the premise that cosmos bears the imprint of the basic building material. The only difference I would like to introduce is to see the shape of DNA in a linear way than in its three-dimensional manifestation.
The DNA is a long string made of two strands twisted together at regular intervals. In uni-dimensional view, it will look as though they meet at a point in a series of expansion and contraction.
In the above illustration of the DNA molecule, the arrow points to the twisted region which looks like a meeting point in uni-dimensional view. With Big Bang originating in a point of singularity, the model of the Universe before and after the Big bang would look like the two sides of the meeting point. Whatever was detected at sub- atomic level after Big Bang and expanding there from, would also have existed on the other side of time (!) of Big Bang, but having reached that state from a contraction to primordial state.
If what the researchers have theoretically established comes out true, a series of oval shapes ending and starting at a point of singularity is what the universe would like for an observer outside the system.
The researchers have hypothesised an anti-Universe on the ‘other side’ of the Big Bang, which does not sound logical. It is not like the mirror image which brings in unreal verses real concepts. The mirror image is unreal but what went into making the point of singularity that caused Big Bang is real. I am not a physicist to identify the particles that went into singularity but they must be the same which sprung after Big Bang. The same particles are being transformed into different states – but in the reverse – which could perhaps be what our present Universe is set to reach after it starts slowing down.
I would use the analogy of tracing the food eaten, to its final state after digestion inside the body. We consume wholesome food. It undergoes systematic break-down into simpler sub-components and finally gets absorbed into prime particles fit to be absorbed by the cells of the body. What happens thereafter? The until-then- existing-in- physical form gets into energy level. And that energy makes you think, see, speak and carry out all the faculty based activities that cannot be activated by the particles in previous-to-the energy level of existence. That energy level is what existed originally or to put it differently that was the form of God (Brahman), who can see without an eye, hear without ear and so on as detailed on Kenopanishad.
That energy is what Brihadaranyaka Upanishad says as “satyasya satyam” (2-1-20). This observation is made in the context of Spider analogy which is also a way the sages explained Creation and Dissolution of the universe.
The kind of expansion from Big Bang and contraction thereafter leading to a point of singularity is comparable with the way a spider spreads out its network and withdraws it into itself.
The spider is known as Tantunābha – the one having filaments drawn from the navel. It is also true that the spider expels a gel from its stomach which goes into making an intricate network of web. Number seven has a role in the making of the web. The web weaving spiders known as orb weavers have seven spinneret glands that secret the liquids used for weaving the spider web. The spider starts the weaving work by first laying a foundation by means of seven ‘guy lines’ attached to some substratum. They form the firm basis upon which it starts weaving the network.
Seven basic threads attached to support system.
Pic courtesy HERE
A curious fact about the network is that not all are of the same type. Certain threads are made non-sticky so that the spider can move over them and certain threads are made sticky to capture the insects. This has an amazing parallel with the Universe we see around us. Not all the galaxial material we see can support life. In the 13 billion years expanse of Universe, we have not seen life anywhere other than us! In the immediate context our previous history had seen two levels of existence in a star and supernova system to have given rise to a habitable earth where we live now. For Life to thrive here and now, the Universe had made huge network that looks life-less – in the same way the intricately woven web of the spider was made to catch its prey only in certain sections. For the existence of those certain sections which may or may not capture the prey, a vast network was needed to be done. The seven base lines of support in the spider web also have a parallel in seven worlds of existence postulated by Vedic Thought.
The spider analogy further continues to establish the way our Universe is going. The spider is said to withdraw into itself the threads it spread out to weave the web. The point of origination at the stomach – at navel – is also analogous to creation from the navel of Narayana!
This analogy seems to convey another facet of creation. Creation from the navel is actually personified as growth connected with the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord supports growth of foetus which means a state of growth that is not yet over or which had not yet seen its completion. The umbilical cord analogy indicates perpetual state of creation wherein creation and contraction leading to singularity are also part of continuing growth, much like the double helix of the DNA molecule that looks very long with repeated points of singularity.
Vedic Thought had set a time line for this continuing growth from the umbilical cord as 100 years of Brahma (four-faced). This is equal to 432,00,00,000 x 2 x 360 x 100 years. When that time limit is reached it means the baby is ready and it is no longer a foetus. The God-connection is to the foetus only, through the umbilical cord. When that limit is reached, Brahma exits (along with his baby) and it is time for another cycle. Another foetus automatically comes into place connected with the umbilical cord of Narayana.
In the overall picture, there is always a foetus growing one after the other. Within the period of a foetus growth, there is pulsating expansion and contraction happening from a Big Bang and ending in a Big Bang which becomes the starting point of the next pulse. The scientists of Ontario are trying to understand this pulse of creation in the shortest duration of the vast time period of the foetus growth.
The beauty of understanding these concepts is that Vedic sages have taught us with simple analogies from what we see around.
A Mirror Image of Our Universe May Have Existed Before the Big Bang
By Erik Vance, Live Science Contributor | January 11, 2019 08:14am ET
Like a mountain looming over a calm lake, it seems the universe may once have had a perfect mirror image. That's the conclusion a team of Canadian scientists reached after extrapolating the laws of the universe both before and after the Big Bang.
Physicists have a pretty good idea of the structure of the universe just a couple of seconds after the Big Bang, moving forward to today. In many ways, fundamental physics then worked as it does today. But experts have argued for decades about what happened in that first moment — when the tiny, infinitely dense speck of matter first expanded outward — often presuming that basic physics were somehow altered.
Researchers Latham Boyle, Kieran Finn and Neil Turok at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario, have turned this idea on its head by assuming the universe has always been fundamentally symmetrical and simple, then mathematically extrapolating into that first moment after the Big Bang. [Big Bang to Civilization: 10 Amazing Origin Events]
That led them to propose a previous universe that was a mirror image of our current one, except with everything reversed. Time went backward and particles were antiparticles. It's not the first time physicists have envisioned another universe before the Big Bang, but those were always seen as separate universes much like our own.
"Instead of saying there was a different universe before the bang," Turok told Live Science, "we're saying that the universe before the bang is actually, in some sense, an image of the universe after the bang."
"It's like our universe today were reflected through the Big Bang. The period before the universe was really the reflection through the bang,” Boyle said.
Imagine cracking an egg in this anti-universe. First, it would be made entirely of negatively charged antiprotons and positively charged anti-electrons. Secondly, from our perspective in time, it would seem to go from a puddle of yolk to a cracked egg to an uncracked egg to inside the chicken. Similarly, the universe would go from exploding outward to a Big Bang singularity and then exploding into our universe.
But seen another way, both universes were created at the Big Bang and exploded simultaneously backward and forward in time. This dichotomy allows for some creative explanations to problems that have stumped physicists for years. For one, it would make the first second of the universe fairly simple, removing the necessity for the bizarre multiverses and dimensions experts have used for three decades to explain some of the stickier aspects of quantum physics and the Standard Model, which describes the zoo of subatomic particles that make up our universe.
"Theorists invented grand unified theories, which had hundreds of new particles, which have never been observed — supersymmetry, string theory with extra dimensions, multiverse theories. People just basically kept on going inventing stuff. No observational evidence has emerged for any of it," Turok said.[5 Elusive Particles Beyond the Higgs | Quantum Physics]
Similarly, this theory would offer a much simpler explanation for dark matter, Boyle said.
"Suddenly, when you take this symmetric, extended view of space/time," Boyle told Live Science, "one of the particles that we already think exists — one of the so-called right-handed neutrinos — becomes a very neat dark-matter candidate. And you don't need to invoke other, more speculative particles." (Boyle is referring to a theoretical sterile neutrino, which would pass through ordinary matter without interacting with it at all.)
The scientists say this new theory grew out of a dissatisfaction with the bizarre add-ons proposed by physicists in recent years. Turok himself helped develop such explanations but felt a deep desire for a simpler explanation of the universe and the Big Bang. They also say this new theory has the benefit of being testable. Which will be crucial in winning over doubters.
"If someone can find a simpler version of the history of the universe than the existing one, then that's a step forward. It doesn't mean it's right, but it means it's worth looking at," said Sean Carroll, a cosmologist at the California Institute of Technology who was cited in the paper but was not involved in the research. He pointed out that the current favorite candidate for dark matter — weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs — haven't been found and it might be time to consider other options, including possibly the right-handed neutrinos Boyle mentioned. But, he said, he's a long way from being persuaded and calls the paper "speculative."
The Canadian team understands this and they will be using the model to propose measurable, testable elements to see if they are correct, they said. For instance, their model predicts the lightest neutrinos should actually be devoid of mass altogether. If they are right, it might reshape how we see the universe.
"It's very dramatic. It completely runs counter to the way that physics has been going for the last 30 years, including by us," Turok said. "We really asked ourselves, could there not be something simpler going on?