Wednesday, September 5, 2012

The negative propaganda on ‘Hindu-Castes’ by the British and the proselytisers .


 

Many articles on how the British demonised a working model of the Hindu society by branding 'caste' as a nasty word, has been posted in the past in my blog. The following article by Mr George Augustine is yet another exposition on the imaginary harm of the caste system.

Varna and Jathi were the 2 concepts of the Hindu society where Varna was based on one's innate nature and Jathi was based on the job that one did in accordance with one's temperament. The concept of untouchability as we know today was non- existent in the Hindu society until the Muslims invaded the country. The British have written this information in the Census report. The British found that 3 types of outcasts were there in India when they came. They analysed and found out that these people were made so only after they were left in the lurch by invasions and colonisations.  Read what Mr W.Chichele Plowden , ( 1883 ), had written in the "Report on the Census of British India taken on the 17th February 1881" , London , Eyre and Spottiswoode , p. 336

     683. The menial castes are the outcasts or pariahs of the people.

"The castes now known as outcasts are of longer standing in the land than the bulk of the Hindoo population, though at what particular incursion they were reduced to their present menial position it is needless here to determine.

A successful invasion and a subsequent colonisation of the country reduced the conquered population to one of three extremities.

Some of them, as for example, the Gonds, retired to a life of hardship and freedom in the hills.

Others chose a vagrant life in the plains. Such are the wandering potters (Bhondekars or Bhonde Kumbhars), who say that they left Chitur when in the days of Udai Sing the city was sacked by Akbar.

But a third portion preferred a village life, coupled with menial service under the conquerors. Such are the Mahars, Mangs, &c, to whom the name of outcast or Ati  Sudra is often applied.

 

Note that the author has felt that it is needless to determine which of the exact instances of the past had resulted in branding some people as outcasts. But he goes on to mention the 2 causes – invasions and colonisation and also tells how some people were abandoned in the wake of Akbar's invasion.

 

Elsewhere the Census report gives the distance maintained by people ( any or all) from these outcastes. That information shows the real cause for such shunning of certain people. Those who killed cows (forced by Muslims) and those who were engaged in leather tanning (these people also were made so by the Muslims) were the people from whom others kept a distance (practiced untouchability). Persons involved in these works were called as 'paraiahs' (not the Parayar of Tamil lands who were one of the oldest groups of ancient Tamil lands and about whose high status can be known from the temple inscriptions of Kongu region as late as 17th century). The Paraihas who were condemned into killing cows and other animals lived in places far away from the cities and villages. About 3 lakhs of them settled in Madras when the British established themselves in Chennai (St George Fort). The British used them to do the same condemned jobs that the Muslims did to them, but shed crocodile tears for them blaming the Hindus for their plight. These paraiahs of Madras came from different places of the country and picked up both English and Tamil which became known as "Madras Bashai". The same British had written in the census reports that there was not a single paraiah found in and around Tanjore, the once capital of the Cholas. That tells the story of how these people came into existence in select areas only.

From 1881 Census report,

"workers in leather, pollute at a distance of 24 feet, toddy-drawers (Iluvan or Tiyan) at 36 feet, Pulayan or Cheruman cultivators at 48 feet, while in the case of the Parāiyan (Pariahs) who eat beef the range of pollution is stated to be no less than 64 feet."

In a country that worshiped Cow as sacred, those who killed the cow and ate beef were not punished but avoided by others. Those who killed cow or worked on its skin or ate beef did not do so on their volition initially but were forced into it by barbaric invaders and colonialists.

The same people who wrote the Census reports also have written that fishermen community did not do fishing job nor lived near seashore but lived inside towns and villages. This shows that once people had given up killing, they were accepted by others. One prominent example of this can be found in the writings of Fa-Hien (4-5th century AD) . In his records of the people who studied in Thakshasheel University  he has mentioned that some fishermen too studied in the University.

Could they study in that apex institution, if there was caste discrimination in the Hindu society?

Or is this the proof of absence of untouchability or non-discrimination between castes in the Hindu society as the said period when Fa-Hien wrote this belonged to the pre- Islamic invasion period?

-          Jayasree

********

 

 

From

http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2012/09/the-caste-system-hindus-imaginary.html

 

The Caste System: the Hindu's Imaginary Achilles' Heel


by


George Augustine

2 September 2012

 

The author is a professional translator
http://www.vijayvaani.com/FrmPublicDisplayArticle.aspx?id=2442

 

 

 



The BBC commemorated the 400th anniversary of the King James Bible last year in a special edition of the TV programme "The Big Questions" debating just one topic: "Is the Bible Still Relevant?" The chief participants were, inter alia, the former Anglican bishop Michael James Nazir-Ali and biblical scholar Francesca Stavrakopoulos. The debate can be watched here. Though the debate was about Christians and the bible, replying to an assertion by bishop Nazir-Ali that people would be savages without the ten commandments, Ms. Stavrakopoulus mentioned that people of other religions also live a moral life, and that they don't need a book for that.


No sooner had she spoken these words did Nazir-Ali, a Christian fundamentalist from Karachi who had to run away to England to escape the wrath of fellow Islamic fundamentalists back home, retorted: "Are you talking about Hindus and the caste system? … Have you ever lived as an untouchable in a Hindu society". It was enough to shut up Ms. Stavrakopoulus, and the bishop looked triumphant, as if scoring a point against the Hindu was enough to salvage the gobbledygook that has become of his faith!



The mention of 'caste system' is enough to shut up even the most eloquent advocate of Hinduism. In a way, this response is reminiscent of the German guilt that becomes active the moment somebody utters the word, "Jew". I've never understood why present-day German humanists should feel guilty of a crime committed by their forefathers motivated by Christian prejudice, of which they have had no part. And it is a wonder why the word "gypsy" never causes such an uncomfortable German response, though the Gypsies too have had a thick slice of the holocaust share.



The 'caste system' in India at its worst was caused by a social prejudice rather than a religious prejudice and I've yet to hear of the Brahmans sending anybody to the gas chamber, or even imprisoning them in a concentration camp. Still, the Hindu hangs his head in shame if you mention the 'caste system'.


The 'caste system' is a naturally evolved social system that existed and still exists in all parts of the world in one form or another, though it was and is most evident in the Indian subcontinent. Caste is defined as "any group of people that combine some or all elements of endogamy, hereditary transmission of occupation, and status in a hierarchy" [1]. According to social scientists, it develops "when the worth difference within a society sharpens to such a point that the social superior shuns fellowship and intermarriage with the inferior, thus creating a society made up of closed hereditary classes" [2].



When caste relations become extreme and infringe upon human dignity and the fundamental freedom of the individual, that is the point when the caste system becomes bad or termed evil, viewed through the lens of the modern moral sensibility. On the other hand, the social organisation based on occupation makes business sense even today, and more so in ancient times when the family craft was not imparted in a polytechnic but in the household, and the teachers were your own parents from whom you learnt your trade. Every member of the family, male or female, was a capital in the trade and it made sense to marry a trained member of a family engaged in the same trade. It is a natural phenomenon and occurs overarching religion and ethnicity.



Caste is no monopoly of the Hindus, but then why are they held hostage by this notion? The obvious reason is that it is generally believed, even by Hindus, that the "caste system" as defined above is mandated by their religion and was therefore institutionalised. Let us examine the verity of this belief.


Bhagavad-Gita

The line chāturvarnyam mayā srushtam guna karma vibhāgasha / tasya kartāram api mām viddhy akārtaram avyavam is spoken by Krishna (Gita 4-13) and means "I created the four varnas according to quality, activities and aptitude; although the creator of this, know me as the non-doer being immutable" [3]. The four varnas or divisions of human order are brahmana, kshatriya, vaisya and shudra and are not at all the 'caste' spoken of earlier, though out of ignorance many people misunderstand them merely as occupational or trade classes ordained by birth.



According to an authentic source [4], the Mahabharata of which Bhagavad-Gita is a part, was written by Maharishi Vyasa for the benefit of certain sections of society at a time when their circumstances did not allow them to pursue the study of the Vedas. Vyasa's effort was to make available the essence of the Vedas to the less privileged, which would enable them to follow the path of dharma.



In the Gita, for this very reason, Vyasa's Krishna assumes superhuman dimensions that reflect the vision of the supreme reality of the Vedas. In Vedanta philosophy, this phenomenal vision of brahman is generally known as saguna brahman, the brahman endowed with qualities. In Advaita Vedanta Isvara, or the creator of universes, of the Upanishads is a reflection of (nirguna) brahman (supreme reality without quality) in māya or the phenomenal world. Therefore, the dissociation of Krishna from the act of creation of the four varnas is consistent with Vedanta.

In the four Vedas, there is no account of an almighty "God" who created the universe and everything in it. The narrative of Mahabharata being designed for those who were ignorant of the Vedas, Krishna (characterising saguna brahman) means by his aforementioned utterance merely that the four varna system is a natural phenomenon. This is easy to understand when one considers gunas as the scientific basis of the four varnas as described in the Vishnupurana. [5]



The physiological and psychological traits of people are ruled by gunas or qualities like satva, rajas and tamas. People are disposed to the various combinations of these gunas for various reasons including genetic inheritance, diet and discipline and it is the dominance of a certain guna or a combination of gunas that predisposes a person to certain qualities that are suitable or unsuitable for a certain activity or a job. Thus a brahmana is predominantly ruled by satva guna, whereas a kshatriya has predominantly rajas. The vaisya has both rajas and tamas and the shudra is dominated by tamas. It is actually the guna that makes them what they are and not vice versa.



The balance or imbalance of these gunas can be influenced by diet and discipline [6] and as such indicates a biological fact. Therefore the maintenance of the guna balance can also be cultivated through breeding, for example, by inter-marrying from the same group which follow the same diet and discipline. And the ensuing progeny will be predisposed to possess the dominant guna of the parents and the community. This process can also lead to the formation of a 'caste' as defined earlier.


Thus, we see that there are biological, social and economical factors involved in the formation of 'castes' and were not created by Krishna or his author Vyasa. The Gita is only stating a natural phenomenon and not 'caste', which is a social development arising from many different factors.



Purusha Suktam

Another text that is often cited to stick the 'caste' on the Hindu's forehead is stanza 13 of Purusha Suktam, which says the purusha's mouth became the brahmana, his arms the kshatriya, his thigh the vysya and his legs shudra. For the blame game, that is to beat the Hindu with the 'caste' stick, one needs to pre-assign lower points in the social scale for purusha's lower limbs to make up an unequal hierarchy. For example, if purusha was considered a tree, its leg (roots) cannot be judged inferior in any way to the top, fruit-bearing branches.


Written by Rishi Narayana, Purusha Suktam [7] is a lovely hymn and a beautiful poem that describes organic evolution leading to human consciousness in the metaphor of a Vedic yajna. The main subject of this poem is purusha, which term is almost always mistranslated into English as 'God', but the purusha is beyond all definitions of 'God' in the dictionary and have no resemblance whatever to the hero of the Christian bible. In a dispassionate analysis of the hymn, however, purusha comes through as the unifying basis of organic life.

The first stanza describes an entity that has multiplied and spread beyond the earth. This entity is organic, because it has eyes, head and feet, indicating perception, intelligence and movement. The second stanza confirms it by stating that this entity sustains its perpetuity and grows enormously by consuming food. Later, the purusha takes on a variety of forms (virat purusha). The devas (natural elements) then perform the yajna (sacrifice) sprinkling celestial waters on purusha after laying him on the darbha grass.



At the end of the yajna, various things emerge, among them animals of all sorts including domestic animals like horses, cows, goats and sheep as well as the four Vedas. After this, in the aforementioned 13th stanza, is described the evolution of human society, whereby the purusha's body becomes a metaphor for the organic body of society, and the various parts of his body become each of the four varnas.


The 14th stanza describes perception through the senses. In the 20th stanza the level of cognition has evolved to such an extent that the Self (I) is identified with the purusha. In the 22nd stanza, the light that shines in all including the devas alike is identified with brahman, the supreme reality. Is there anything false or socially evil in the depiction of this aspect of reality?



Cultural Changes

There are various factors responsible for the distortion of concepts and meanings in the Hindu texts, among which I would name the dominance of the Judeo-Christian thought and sensibility among Hindus as the foremost. It has become a fashion among Hindus today to portray themselves as more irrational than they really are by competing to be like Judeo-Christians in their worship, which really is a superstitious myth. In their ignorance, many still think that they have to go beyond common sense and intelligence in order to be considered religious or moral. Nothing can be further from the truth.



There is a new trend in the Hindu 'caste' criticism, especially by Christian missionaries worldwide, by naming it a 'racial discrimination'. The accusation is that the Aryan invaders of yore, who are called Brahmins, consider themselves a superior race and the Hindu 'caste' has been created on the basis of racial categories. This myth can be exploded by just one instance. The Brahmin 'castes' in India as a rule did not intermarry with another Brahmin 'caste' in another language area, just like they didn't with any other 'caste' in their own language area. This wouldn't have been the case if the Aryan race was a fact or indeed the cause of the 'caste'. The Aryan invasion theory has been dismantled since long, but the idea is still utilised by Christian missionaries in South India and by Tamil politicians to good effect.



The real victims of modern 'caste' discrimination are termed "untouchables". Most of these people were originally outside the 'caste' society because from time immemorial they inhabited remote geographical zones (such as forests), where they had complete autonomy over their land, culture and society. Though interactions between the different groups were minimal, they were regular and recognised and accepted by Hindu kings and all caste groups. However, the old system and traditions broke down after the establishment of colonial laws.



The numerous traditional festivals [8], which have almost become extinct today, involving these groups indicate points of interaction between these societies on equal terms. Most of the "untouchable" groups enjoyed their own geographical space, occupation, customs and rituals, which were not violated under all circumstances by tradition and were accepted by all communities and the local Raja.



The violation began when European colonialists started clearing forests and encroached upon the geographical areas of the so-called 'untouchables' to preach Christianity to the forest dwellers. The rabid increase in the Indian population in the last 50 years combined with the import of European morality also compelled these vulnerable groups to also lose their dignity, forcing them to forsake their own land and traditions and learn the new language and culture of the Europeanised plains to become a servile class.


The significant number of dignified personalities (Vyasa, Visvamitra, Parasurama, Dronacharya, etc.) in ancient Hindu history who changed their 'caste' occupation indicates that the alleged features of the modern-day Hindu 'caste system' marked by extreme rigidity and inequality evolved later on in history. Foreign invasion was a major factor that rigidified social strata. A new study [9] shows a direct link between colonial practices and policies to the development of social inequalities in India. No doubt lots remains to be done not only in India but all parts of the world to get rid of social discrimination based on ethnicity, occupation and religion. This discrimination is not a monopoly of the religious group known as Hindus.


Notes
[1] See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caste
[2] See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caste#Theories_on_caste_formation
[3] http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-04-13.html
[4] Srimad Bhagavatam, Canto I, chapter 4, verse 25. See http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Articles/vyasa.html
[5] See Pandharinath H. Prabhu, Hindu Social Organisation, A Study of the Socio-Psychological and Ideological Foundations, in the chapter "Four Varnas" (Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, 2010) pp. 319-320. See in Google Books.
[6] For more details, consult a learned ayurvedic physician or Hindu acharya.
[7] See the 'Simple English' translation by Sri Kotikanyadanam Sreekrishna Tatachar: http://srivaishnavam.com/stotras/ps_meaning.htm
[8] The Mannarkadu Pooram in Palakad District, Kerala, which took place for the last time in 1972, was the last of such festivals to have disappeared in India. It was a joint festival of the Attapady tribes and the people of the plains, which was a traditional venue for goods and cultural exchange.
[9] See Arvind Kumar, How British socialism created poverty and caste inequality: http://www.dnaindia.com/analysis/column_how-british-socialism-created-poverty-and-caste-inequality_1727277


 

7 comments:

jayasree said...

Mr MK Krishnaswamy writes:-

Please refer to the following article (extract?) which I had saved on paper two decades ago. There is a reference to Governor General Metcalf's Note to East India Company praising the caste system for ensuring social stabiliy with Village as a Unit:

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=HeRovHOxHVsC&pg=PA51&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false

The most practical expression of the Indian spirit was its unique caste system. Although this apparently originated in the effort of Aryan conquerors to maintain their superiority over the much greater native population, in time it was rationalised on a religious basis. We need not dwell on the obvious objections to an institution that arbitrarily determined the status of a!l men by birth rather than merit or ability, that condemned most men to a lowly status, and that denied the 'outcastes', or Unrouchables, any civil or religious rights. We do need to consider its less obvious claims to respect. The institution was moralised by the principle of Karma, since the faithful man could hope for a higher status in his next incarnation. The privileged Brahman in turn did not have an easier life at the top but was subject to a severe discipline on penalty of going down the scale in his next birth; unlike most historic aristocracies, this caste kept producing men of distinguished learning and piety in every generation. All men of caste enjoyed the security of an appointed place and a common tradition. All were protected against the tyranny of economic competition; class conflict, and .arbitrary political power. All could seek perfection in their own sphere, aided by the order that was given to every trade and profession by the hundreds of sub-castes, and by the strong sense of continuity in society as a whole. The caste system held India together for more than two thousand years, through all the vicissitudes of foreign conquest, civil war, and political chaos. How it worked, as late-as the nineteenth century, is summed up in the famous observation of Sir Charles Metcalf:


"If a country remains for a series of years the scene of continued pillage and massacre, so that the villages cannot be inhabited, the scattered villagers nevertheless return whenever the power of peaceable possession revives. A generation may pass away, but always succeeding generation will return. The sons will take the place of the fathers, the same site for the village, the same position for the house, the same lands will be reoccupied by the descendents of those who were driven out when the village was depopulated."


In short, this institution represents the most astonishing attempt in history to maintain social stability and arrest change. So here, again, is the issue. In keeping with the metaphysical ideal of a changeless reality, the religious ideal of renunciation, and the ethical idea of passivity, the ideal of the caste system was an absolutely static order, a completely 'closed’ society. It was the closest historic approximation of the Platonic beehive.

ASHISH said...

Mars entered Scorpio on 23 Aug 12

Re your comment
"Mars will be crossing over to Scorpio in opposition to Ketu close to Aries - Taurus junction. This happens on 28th September (add 3 days before and after) when Mars will be Vishaka and Ketu in Krittika.

Now these sensitive points are crossed by Mars and Ketu which signify firearms, explosion and unnatural death. "

SIVAKASI tragedy is confirmation of your prediction (viz Mar entered Scorpio).

I sincerely pray that there are no such tragedies.

You deem coming months will be a test people's endurance.

Ashish Raje

ASHISH said...

I may have erred in stating Mars entered Scorpio on 23 Aug 12. But I read it at few websites.

However, I came across Astro Anil Agarwal following comment:

"Mars Saturn dominate in Libra. Although their conjunction has taken place on 14th August, they continue in the same sign till 28th Sept.when it joins Rahu in Scorpio. The conjunction of Mars and Saturn remains a testing energy.

Mars finally leaves on 28th September, setting up his conjunction with Rahu in Scorpio .

Saturn in Libra Exalted
Saturn will be free of Mars from 28 September 2012 and can start giving unblemished results of his exaltation.

This is a very short span as first Sun will conjoin Saturn in Libra and then Rahu (mean node) will retrograde back to Libra in Jan 2013 and create the conjunction till July 2014."

Excuse me for my incorrect statement.

However, Sivakasi tragedy could you corraborate with your prediction of fire accidents and unnatural deaths.

Ashish Raje

jayasree said...

@ Ashish,

Basic thumbrule for fire accidents and explosions - Mars and Sun in fiery signs, malefics in Krittika star. Presently Sun in Leo (own sign and fiery sign) Ketu in Krittika are enough reasons for fire accidents and unnatural deaths. The conjunction of Mars and Saturn in windy sign and aspecting the fiery sign Aries (Martian sign) causes fire accidents, explosions, fire spread by fanning of winds, violent behavior of people. etc

This combination is ripe for natural calamities too. The terror angle to it is stalled as long as Jupiter is in forward motion. Once it starts retro motion, terror strikes can be expected in India.

Aishu said...

There was a Gas tanker explosion in Kannur, Kerala. Then Apollo Tyres went up in flames in Ernakulam few days back. Then this Sivakasi incident.

Why are these incidents happening in south india only?

jayasree said...

@ Aishu,
The signs have directions. Ketu afflicting Krittika is happening in Taurus whose direction is south. However the combined affliction of Mars and Saturn is on Aries which is east.

I wish people arrange for Rudrabhiisheka in temples and arrange pujas for Lord Nataraja. In times of calamities and fear of unnatural deaths these two must be done. Also let people do Mruthuyunjana japa everyday.

seadog4227 said...

I once read an article written by Hugh and Colleen Gantzer abt some communities living in North India. In this particular case, they came upon a community in UP where the women were tall and stately, whilst the men were dark and short. The women would cook the food, place the plate on the floor and kick it towards their husbands. Upon close questioning, it appeared that these were displaced Rajput women, who were sent out from Rajasthan to escape the ravages of Islam, with their servants. As time passed by and nobody came to rescue them, they resigned themselves to marrying their servants.Amazing Bharat!