The 9th part of the Indic Past Series focuses on decoding the concept of the Manvantaras. A part of it on the 5th Manvantara namely, Raivata Manvantara, when the first speech took genesis was released prior to this. The 9th part covers all the six Manvantaras that have gone so far.
Thursday, August 13, 2020
The discourse starts by exploring the meaning of Manvantara. This comes up with two revelations - Manvantara as a measurement of Time and an Epoch. This covers geological events. The story of Madhu and Kaitabha is deciphered in this context as mantle or ‘medas’ oozing out, ultimately forming the crust of the earth. It is from here the other meaning of Manvantara becomes relevant.
Manu forms the basis of a Manvantara – Manu being the embodiment of Dharma as per Shiva Purana. After a brief description of what this Dharma is about, the video continues to describe the Manvantaras based on the template found in the Puranas. This template covers the ‘calf’ and the feature to be ‘milked’ from the earth.
The first Manvantara as per Brahmanda Purana was that of Brahma when the wind was the calf and the seeds spread by the wind formed the factor that was milked. Brahma Manvantara is not found mentioned in the other Puranas, but this Manvantara gives continuity from Madhu- Kaitabha episode that was followed by the formation of trees on the crust of the earth.
This was followed by Svayambhu Manvantara, designated as the first Manvantara by the other Puranas. By the etymology of the name Svayambhu it is known that he was self-born and not dropped by God on the earth! The etymology concurs with the Darwinian concept of evolution – of man evolving from the previously existing life forms. It is for this reason he was known as Svayambhu. He, as the calf milked all the plants of the earth. This implies that man was not carnivorous by nature.
Svayambhu’s first knowledge was on use of mud, recognized as “Kardama” who along with “Chiklida” (moisture) brought wealth to man. So the western conception of Stone age has no relevance to Indic past.
The herbivorous life style of Indic man continues to be revealed in the next Manvantara too when man became Svārochisha – self shining by his ability to identify and collect food grains. This resulted in gaining the knowledge of medical and health related benefits of food grains.
Man evolved further by using the grains for growing crops! That period when he started growing crops is known as Uttama Manvantara when the calf was Devabhuja – the ‘hand of Devas’. This could refer to the understanding of the natural forces such as sunshine and rainfall and their importance in growing crops. Man had now realized the role of forces beyond his control and with this the first concept of Deva – the God had dawned.
A notable feature of this Manvantara is that cultivation had started very long ago. The role of sunshine in cultivation points to the locations in equatorial rainfall regions. In contrast Ice age conditions were continuing for very long in the northern parts of the globe including Europe and West Asia until the end of Younger Dryas.
Cultivation signals settled life in Uttama Manvantara. This was followed by the 4th Manvantara namely Tāmasa Manvantara that signified darkness. This could be a reference to the Last Glacial Maximum that started 33,000 years ago which brought less warmth to the equatorial regions. There is no mention of what is milked at this time, but Bala-Bandhu was referred to as the calf. This period forced people to be huddled together that resulted in strengthening bonding and family life. Bala-Bandhu is more likely to be Bāla Bandhu – of people, mothers and elderly women in particular becoming guardians and protectors of children. From this, honoring the departed mothers must have started that gave rise to the concept of Mother Spirits discussed in an earlier episode.
Then came the 5th Manvantara by name Raivata Manvantara when speech developed. That part of the video was already uploaded with the synopsis (Read here). Family concept that had come up by this time, helped in developing speech for communication. The location was in Shaka Dweepa, in the equatorial region, where Mount Kumuda was located. It came to be known as Kaumara by the time of Mahabharata, giving us the indication of the role of Kumara or Skanda in developing speech further as proper languages – that will be discussed in a future episode.
This Manvantara also saw the movement of people. This resulted in spread of speech to different regions of the world.
This was followed by Cākshusha Manvantara, the 6th Manvantara by which time man started developing deep thinking that is recognized as ‘vision’ or ‘eye sight’- lending the name Cākshusha to the Manvantara.
This Manvantara saw the peak of human intelligence by the discovery of ‘Bhavya’ – the heaven, the celestial sphere. The story of Dhruva happened in this Manvantara. The discovery of Dhruva nakshatra, concept of creation and year was made in this Manvantara by a combination of external and internal vision. Rituals were invented.
Following Dhruva, Daksha came into being – Daksha referring to a time of clever and able persons. The discovery of the zodiac with 27 stars traversed by the moon was made in this time. Puranas say that there were many Daksha-s in the past and all of them were terminated by sudden fire. Similar fate occurred to this Daksha of Cākshusha Manvantara which is encapsulated in the story of Daksha Yāga that was devastated by the fire unleashed by an angry Shiva. That part will be decoded in a future episode.
Following Daksha, Skanda was born that coincided with the end of Ice age and Melt water Pulses and followed by Younger Dryas. Skanda re-designed the zodiac and elevated Krittika as a star of the zodiac. The Shrāddha ceremony (ancestral oblations) was formalized by then.
This was followed by the current Vaivasvata Manvantara. Thus we find a larger Epoch of a Manvantara (Vaivasvata) with Catur Maha Yugas running into lakhs of years – within which many smaller Manvantaras have occurred.
While dealing with references to Manvantaras in ancient texts , we must be clear about what is being talked about.
Wednesday, August 12, 2020
This video is an excerpt from the 9th episode of the Indic Past Series on Manvantaras (which is yet to be released).
The systematic analysis of the Manvantaras given in the Puranas shows a gradual development of man from a wanderer to a community man in permanent settlements. Permanent settlement was forced on him due to circumstances in Uttama Manvantara when man took up cultivation and development of family set-up during Tāmasa Manvantara. The close interaction within the family and community resulted in development of SPEECH which was recognized as a different Manvantara namely, Raivata Manvantara.
The birth of first speech or Proto Language is deciphered from a story given in Markandeya Purana. There was a sage by name “Rtavāk” meaning ‘proper speech’ to whom a son was born in the Revati star. The unruly behavior of the son irritated the sage that he kicked off the star Revati from its place!!!
As a result the star Revati fell on Mount Kumuda illuminating the surroundings and causing a lake. This is a reference to extra-terrestrial impact on the earth causing a crater lake. A beautiful damsel by name Revati emerged from that lake. (Revat means ‘jump’, ‘leap’ or ‘move’) She was nurtured by Pramuca, meaning ‘set free’, who intended to marry her to King Durgama. Durgama means ‘difficult to be controlled’.
The names seen until now are related to speech. It was set moving by Rtavāk which was ‘set free’ (Pramuca) and got to be connected with ‘difficult to be controlled’ (Durgama).
Durgama was already married to others, whose names indicate settled living, living in proper houses built with wood and Kāveri’s daughter!
Kāveri is a Tamil name with the etymology derived as Kā +viri, where Kā means Sarasvati and Viri means ‘expanding’. Sarasvati was not yet born then but the name Kāviri having the same meaning as Sarasvati was recognized then.
The video goes on to show how it was Kāviri, not Kāveri at Kodagu and at Omkareshwar – by having overflown. Water overflowing from a lake is Kāviri (Sarasvati). Vāk (words) overflowing from the mouth is Sarasvati and therefore Kāviri!
It was at the receptacle of Kāviri (it was not flowing then) the sage Agastya did a penance for 12 years to gain the power of Vāk (words) in Tamil after the 1st Sangam regions were lost to the seas. Agastya who appeared at Dandaka Vana in the 11th year of Rama’s exile shifted to the receptacle of Kāviri by the 14th year of exile to prepare himself for inaugurating the 2nd Sangam Assembly at Kāvatam. Where Vāk (words) needs to be promoted, there Kāviri gains relevance.
The video articulates on related topics and establishes that the first speech of the Indic society had its genesis in Raivata Manvantara at a region where Kaumara was located in Shāka Dweepa in the equatorial region.
The timing given by sage Markandeya can be identified with a comet-fall on the moon with the fragments falling on the earth in the equatorial region. (Similar event is deduced before the Mahabharata war that witnessed two 13-tithi phases). The comet-fall on the moon is recognized by the shift in the orbit of the moon narrated in the story by Markandeya. At the time of marriage of Revati with Durgama, the moon started resuming its old orbit by which it started going closer to the star Revati.
This early speech became the proto language from which Skanda and his father (Sundaresa / Shiva) picked out two well refined languages simultaneously, namely Tamizh and Sanskrit. This will be explained in a future episode of the Indic Past Series.
The narration from Markandeya Purana establishes that the Proto language of the Indic society did not emerge in Europe or West Asia or North West of India. It had emerged in the Equatorial region, near Mount Kumuda, which came to be known as Raivataka and later as Kaumara during Mahabharata times. The probable time period of the genesis of this proto language was Last Glacial minimum.
Monday, August 10, 2020
On the day the Prime Minister Sri Narendra Modi conducted the Bhumi Puja for the construction of Ram temple at the birth place of Rama, a swarm of tweets trended the micro blogging site with the hash tag #LandofRavana #TamilPrideRavana and #LandOfRavanan claiming that Ravana was a Tamil king who was wronged by Rama.
It was clear that this absurd war of tweets was the only way that certain elements in Tamil Nadu inimical to the BJP government could think of as a means of disapproval for the Ram temple coming up at Ayodhya. At the bottom of it lies the hatred for all Hindus and a plan to promote an idea that Tamils are not Hindus. For this they had taken up Ravana as an identity of Tamil people while completely forgetting the Brahmin origin of Ravana.
In this backdrop, I have given a short speech in a private YouTube Channel, Deisya Siragugal addressing four issues raised by the inimical forces.
After highlighting the fact that the hatred for Rama stems from the hatred for Hindus, I went onto to describe how this hatred was justified on the logic of “enemy’s enemy is a friend’. Since Hindus are treated as enemies, Rama, their God becomes the enemy of these elements. So Rama’s enemy Ravana got qualified to be their friend whom they defended against all sensibilities.
To name the oft repeated issues,
# they eulogized Ravana as a gentleman for not touching Sita without her ‘permission’.
# they condemned the ‘treatment’ to Shurpanakha of chopping her nose.
# they abused Rama for killing Vaali ‘unjustly’.
# they faulted Rama for forcing Sita to enter fire.
All these were in defense of Ravana, the Brahmin, by the same people whose hatred for Brahmins finds no limits.
I have replied to all these in the light of the question whether Ravana can be truly considered as a Tamil person. For this I have taken up Tirukkural as the sacred text of Tamils that they often invoke in support of Tamil culture.
I raised the question:
‘Does one become a Tamilian by speaking Tamil or by following Tamil culture expounded by Tirukkural?’
There is no evidence to say that Ravana spoke Tamil while on the contrary there are evidences to say that Sita and Rama spoke Tamil.
Ravana didn’t live up to the culture emphasized by Tirukkural.
Tirukkural admonishes one who desires another man’s wife; Ravana did just that – by desiring Sita. Vaali also did the same by desiring his brother’s wife.
Tirukkural condemns meat eating; Ravana and Shurpanakha were man-eaters.
Tirukkural extols the virtue of living blemish-free life; it is for this reason Sita on her own decided to walk on the fire. The same was done by Draupadi too at the end of Mahabharata war which finds a continuous resonance till date as fire-walking ceremony in Draupadi temples.
Finally I have given the family tree of Ravana on both paternal and maternal side to prove the fact that he was not a Tamilian by birth or by location. Even Lanka was not his own, but snatched by him from Kubera, his half-brother.
The video can be watched here:
Wednesday, August 5, 2020
We crossed a historic moment at 12-46 PM today (5th August 2020) when the Bhumi Puja for the construction of the destroyed temple of Rama at his birth place was done by the Prime Minister, Sri Narendra Modi. An emotional moment for billions of Hindus around the world including me.
Rama had everything not right in his life. His father decided to hand over the kingdom at a critical point in Time (Read here) that ultimately resulted in Rama losing everything including his wife. When he got back the kingdom, Time didn’t favor him live with his wife and see the birth of his children. When he identified his children, again Time played spoilsport by snatching away his wife once forever. Time also made him denounce his brother at the penultimate hour in his life. When he decided to cast off his mortal coils Time left his place desolate!
It was only in the last 1000 years, monarchs had started building grand temple at His place. But none of them could stand for long, in contrast to scores of temples of Tamilnadu that have withstood the vagaries of Time.
Why this trouble to Rama’s place?
Anything wrong in Time of building them?
This thought is upper most in my mind, as I think about the choice of destructors and constructors by Time.
With so many thoughts on karma and players in the hand of Destiny which I cannot share in public, I decided to just pen the following verse of Periyazhwar with small changes.
பல்லாண்டு பல்லாண்டு பல்லாயிரத்தாண்டு,
மல்லாண்ட திண்தோள் ராமசந்திரா! உன்
அடியோ மோடும் நின்னோடும் பிரிவின்றி ஆயிரம் பல்லாண்டு
வடிவாய் நின்வல மார்பினில் வாழ்கின்ற சீதையும் பல்லாண்டு
வடிவார் சோதி வலத்துறையும் சாரங்கமும் பல்லாண்டு
வளமாய் நின் ஆலயமும் வாழ்வாங்கு வாழிய பல்லாண்டே!
Thursday, July 30, 2020
சொன்னால் விரோதம் ஆயினும் சொல்கிறேன்!
What is the aim of education?
The answer to this is same as “what is the aim of life?” says Peters, a professor of philosophy of education at the University of London. So what is the aim of life? The answer can be spiritual, philosophical or materialistic. In olden days, people were clear about what they wanted in life and based on that gone after the kind of education that was suitable for them. They learned the three Rs (reading, writing and arithmetic) and those after material pursuits learned the hereditary skill in addition.
Where are we today? Today also we need these, the three Rs and skill to support our material progress. So any educational policy of the government must be based on these. Does the newly rolled out National Educational Policy 2020 fulfill this?
The first shocker is the promotion of “Multi-lingualism” at formative years aimed at cutting off ‘Phoren” English but forcing down “Phoren Hindi, phoren Marathi, phoren Bengali ……and so on” for the child of a different mother tongue.
So, the two of the three Rs are going to be drawn from three different languages, none of them going to be of help to material progress of the child later. Where just one language can do, the government is thrusting three languages for the fault of having born in multi-lingual India. That one language happens to be English is what troubles the Government. But that language makes my ward expand his frontiers of knowledge is no concern to the Government. That one language enables my ward to present his findings in journals read by reputed scientists around the world is of no concern to the government. What the government wants is to make India “Ek Bharat Sreshtha Bharat” says this link https://taxguru.in/corporate-law/national-education-policy-2020-nep-2020.html
For a concept like this – of promoting Classical languages, regional languages, why sacrifice my ward’s time, youth, aspirations and capabilities? Regional language development is the responsibility of the State governments. Ek Bharat Sreshtha Bharat comes by cultural unity and not by forcing three languages through my ward’s tongue – none of which are going to fill his stomach. It is a lone battle for each child when it comes to choosing the subjects of choice and University of choice in the midst of oppressing reservation policy which no government is going to do away with.
It is even funny reading the claims of NEP on multiple entry and exit with certification. What is the cost of it in the job market? Will Tata or Infosys recruit my ward with such certificates? Such entry and exit may have limited use for very less number of people. For the majority, proper streams of subjects learned through the medium that is most valuable in today’s world is the need of the hour. Why many people with professional degree are not able to land up in good jobs but are turned away with the advice to undertake a course in English? This is common sight in Tamilnadu, mainly because it chose a bad education policy tinged with regional language chauvinism. The same is now being promoted by the BJP government at the national level through NEP2020.
The next deception is the claim that the present 10+2 stands scrapped. NEP 2020 proposes 5+3+3+4 curricular structure starting from the age of 3, with 3 years of pre-schooling (one additional year before LKG and UKG) and 12 years of schooling. In what way it is different from 10+2? With the burden of exams at 3rd, 5th and 8th Grade (Standard in the current system) and Board exams at 10th and 12th Grade, it is nothing but the old wine in a new cup. Nothing changes for the kids and their parents. Only additional burden in the form of ‘phoren’ languages of India and a bleak future once the student steps out of school.
The next issue that pops up is whether this policy is applicable to CBSE or all boards. Since education is in concurrent list, I wonder how this can be forced on all States. The claim of “universalization of education” gives a deja vu of ‘uniform syllabus’ introduced by Karunanidhi that killed education in State Board schools of Tamilnadu. It saw a migration to CBSE stream. Now with NEP2020, there is going to be a flight from CBSE to ICSE and international schools. We are going to see a vertical division of the society between haves and have-nots with haves (who can afford the hefty cost of those schools) rising up in the ladder with better access given by English knowledge.
All those who are against English as medium of instruction are language chauvinists, Hindi belt BJP-ians who struggle to connect with non-Hindi speaking people, think-tanks of foreign origin or think-tanks who made English speaking countries their homes, and who are still awed at Japan, Germany, Russia, China etc for their strides with local languages without blinking an eye on the local conditions. China may curb English, but Chinese want to learn English. I hear from sources how they feel disadvantaged at not being able to promote their researches at the world level. India should not behave like China in language policy. I find either political motives or political leanings among the supporters of NEP2020, but can see none among them a struggling parent for whom education means an investment for future. Definitely the language policy at school and High school is going to stunt their growth and slash their dreams of making it big in life.
I am just fed up with their arguments which are same as the ones I have been hearing right from the 90s. At that time the issue was around English as ‘link language’. The present problem is also because of the same reason - the BJP government not willing to accept English as the link language.
In the place of learning just one link language which can be used within India and outside as well, this Government is forcing three languages from the pool of Indian languages for the tiny tots until 8th standard. After the 8th grade there is no way the student can learn the subjects through English. So successfully the BJP government is closing the opportunities for all the students to learn what is happening outside India. I can easily foresee how future-Indians are going to be like – having seen how the Tamil-only- learners have turned out to be now. And BJP wants only such people – the “Nationalists” whose identity lies only in their national tongue which is ultimately going to be Hindi!
Related post: Leave the language to us, Amit Shah ji
Friday, July 24, 2020
My research paper on Siddhantic concept of the equinoxes offers newer insights to emerging trends in Science on Precession
A work that I would prefer to call as the magnum opus of my life is now getting published as a series in the reputed astrological magazine founded by Dr. B.V. Raman. Dr. Raman’s contribution to arriving at the rate of Precession is well known to many. I feel honored to have my research paper on the Siddhantic version of precession verified with paleocliamtic data, offering newer insights to recent trends in science on precession, accepted for publication in this magazine after being reviewed by the editorial team.
The paper is published as a multi-part series starting from August 2020 issue of the magazine.
Click here to download the August 2020 issue https://astrologicalmagazine.com/
Recent trends in science:
Certain recent observations in planetary science have raised doubts on the reliability of the luni-solar model of the precession of the equinoxes. A brief account of them is given below:
1. The earth’s spin axis is no longer precessing, i.e. not moving westward, but had started moving eastward. (https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/grl.50552 )
“Around the year 2000, Earth's spin axis took an abrupt turn toward the east and is now drifting almost twice as fast as before, at a rate of almost 7 inches (17 centimeters) a year. "It's no longer moving toward Hudson Bay, but instead toward the British Isles," reports Adhikari who had presented quite a few research papers on this topic. (https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=6332 )
NASA scientists have identified three factors influencing the axial drift, namely isostatic rebound of land forms formerly under ice sheets, melting of the ice sheets and mantle convection – each having equal weightage in influencing the axial drift. (https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180919195906.htm)
The axial drift is therefore guided by internal dynamics of the earth and not by external forces such as luni-solar pull which is the basis for the current theory of precession.
2. This revelation brings us to the next issue on what happens with the moon in relation to the earth. The moon is receding from us thereby theoretically producing less torque, whereas the rate of precession is found to be increasing which can happen due to greater force on the earth as per luni-solar theory. This contradiction is now being noticed, but when read with the previous point, it is understood that the earth’s axial motion is not influenced by the moon or the sun. Added to this is the fact demonstrated in space station that a gyroscope in zero gravity does not change its orientation come whatever be the disturbance to it. https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2016/03/Gyroscopes_in_space This means earth does not behave like a rotating gyroscope in zero gravity, which is contrary to the current concept that is the basis for the 26000 year cycle of precession.
3. That there is no precession of the earth is established by the data on lunar cycle equations and eclipse calculations. http://www.binaryresearchinstitute.org/bri/research/evidence/lunarcycle.shtml The earth completes a full revolution of 360 degrees from one like equinox to another like equinox and is not found short of the proverbial precession amount of 52 arc seconds. Examination of the past data also shows that the spring equinox had occurred on the same Gregorian date (after leap year adjustment) and not drifted. The spring equinox occurs on 21st March (or 20th) now and it was on the same Gregorian date in the year 499 CE, at the time of Aryabhata when the tropical equinox coincided with sidereal equinox. (check out Fig 5 in my blog: http://jayasreesaranathan.blogspot.com/2020/07/mahabharata-date-is-intertwined-with.html )
This means that there is no variation in the dates with reference to the earth in relation to the sun as it circles around the sun. The points of equinoxes and solstices are fixed on the circle of orbit of the earth. What is perceived as precession is the shift noticed in the background frame of reference when the entire circle is moving ahead. This can be possible only if the sun along with the entire solar system is moving in a curved path. Only in that case, there can be absence of precession with reference to sun but presence of precession with reference to a distant star.
Since the rate is increasing now, the researchers hypothesize a binary companion for the sun, with the sun presently moving around the perigee. The implication of this which is not yet grasped by the scientists is that the sun is going to change the direction of its movement by which we will see the equinox moving forward. This forward movement of the equinox after a backward movement is exactly the version of Surya Siddhanta and revealed variously by different authors in the past and expressed by limited shift of the pole stars in the Puranas.
In this backdrop I worked on the Siddhantic concept of precession in comparison with the Milankovitch cycles and checked with paleoclimatic data since the beginning of Last Glacial Maximum. My findings reveal a wavy or a sinusoidal path for the sun with least scope for a binary companion.
This implies that in the next generation simulators based on Siddhantic precession, Arundhati will be seen ‘walking behind’ Vasishtha and Amavasya or Pournami not happening on the “13th day”, forcing the researchers to learn the basics and start from the basics.
The abstract of my paper gives in a nutshell the contents and the focus of my paper. Request readers to share this paper, discuss and come up with constructive responses, if any.
The current theory of the axial precession of the earth relative to the distant stars resulting in the continuous precession of the equinoxes and the corresponding pole shift in a circle around the zodiac in a cycle of approximately 26000 years is not recognized by the Indic Thought that proposes a short cycle of 7200 years consisting of forward and backward motion of the equinoxes and a corresponding limited number of pole stars spread across the span of the constellation of Ursa Minor, known as Shishumara in Puranas and the Vedic texts. The decipherment of the ‘difficult passage’ of Siddhanta Shiromani reveals the cycle of eccentricity of the earth’s orbit that differs from that of Milankovitch which suffers from ‘100 000 year problem’. The precession cycle of Milankovitch stands disputed by the Surya Siddhantic cycle and the ‘Yuga of Ayana’ of Munjāla and Vishnuchandra that consists of three cycles of equinoxes. The concept of obliquity of Milankovitch absent in Indic Thought is also non- existent in the emerging scientific revelation from lunar data and solar path-based movement that is mistaken as precession of the axial tilt. The three Indic cycles enumerated from the Siddhantas and checked against the Milankovitch cycles are verified with paleocliamtic data. It is found that the sequence of glacial events since the Last Glacial Maximum match with the mid-point of the Ayana cycle of the equinoxes. The incidence of Dansgaard –Oeschger events that remain unexplained by any current theory are found to match with the Ayana cycles, besides giving credence to the sinusoidal path of the sun that is observed as to and fro motion for an observer on the earth.
Tuesday, July 21, 2020
The 8th part of the Indic Series makes a slight departure from the narrative tracing the development of the Indic past until the time of mini Ice age called Younger Dryas (11,000 years ago) when the planet Saturn was discovered and Vivasvan (the sun) was perceived as Martanda. These two developments place un-challengeable upper limits to the formation of two types of Yuga concepts, namely, the Catur Maha Yuga concept measuring the age of Brahma and the 5-year Yuga concept having practical application in the Vedic society. Therefore these two are discussed along with the Manvantra concept in three episodes before coming back to catch up with where we left.
The current episode gives a brief account on the Catur Maha Yuga concept that it is based on the planetary revolutions expressed in terms of Time and not applicable to human life. As such the view that Ramayana occurred in Treta Yuga lakhs of years ago has no basis. This is supported by highlighting the fact that the Indian landmass was not where it is now when the current Manvantra of Vaivasvata started.
The purpose of the Catur Maha Yuga is further explored by deciphering the dancing posture of Nataraja. The primary utility of the Catur Maha Yuga concept running into lakhs of years is to measure the entire span of space that is one-fourth of the manifest form of Brahman, in terms of time for which the basic unit is taken as the solar year. This concept could have been conceived only after 11,000 years BP (before present), for the very fact that this computation demands knowledge of the five Tara grahas[i] that include Saturn.
This Yuga concept is also matched with current science on Big Bang. It is found that we are in the 2nd day of Brahma after the Big Bang event. This concept also reveals that the night kalpa of Brahma started 1.16 billion years before the Big Bang.
This is followed by a discussion on how the knowledge of the fundamentals of this concept is essential for solving some of the tricky issues found in Mahabharata. Four issues are solved using the fundamentals.
1. The Amanta system has been in vogue ever since the Yuga concept was perceived. As such the origins of Purnimanta system antedates the discovery of Saturn and could be traced to the south of the equator which we will be discussing in a future episode.
2. The verses of Mahabharata pertaining to sensing the arrival of Kali during the Mahabharata war are not about the computational Catur Yuga concept that is planet based, but about the nature of Time - as adharmic. In such scenario within a short period, any one of the four yugas can be sensed in any order and even found changing quickly from one to another. This will be elaborated in the 10th episode.
3. The Rahu- Ketu axis is an essential pre-condition for determining the evidence on an eclipse. This axis comes back to the same signs at the end of 18 years (since they complete one revolution around the zodiac in 18 years). This axis was in Pisces – Virgo at the time of the beginning of the Kali Maha Yuga when all the planets except Rahu congregated at the beginning of Aries. They must have been hovering around the same signs at the time of Mahabharata war that took place on the 36th year before Kali Yuga began.
Unfortunately most research works on Mahabharata date show this axis in Taurus- Scorpio by wrongly interpreting the 13 day twin lunation as twin eclipses.
4. How the lack of knowledge of the fundamentals leads to mis-interpretations is demonstrated pictorially the process of the tithi concept. Amavasya can happen starting from 14th to 15th tithi or from 15th to 16th (technically it is the 1st tithi otherwise), but never from 13th 14th tithi. If that happens it means the moon’s path is shortened which is impossible to happen.
Vyasa (others too including Karna, Krishna, Balarama) was appalled on seeing Amavasya occurring on Trayodashi. He was anxiously watching the next phase which also ended on the 13th tithi, on the same star as in the previous month. This reduction can be caused by a reduction in the circumference of the orbit of the moon, which has no explanation other than a comet smashing on the moon, almost shaking it temporarily. A similar event shook off the moon in Raivataka manvantra which I will explain in the next episode.