- Patanjali defines Yoga as “Yogashcitta vritti nirodaha”, i.e. “Negation of changes of the mind”
- Vaisheshika sutras define yoga as “ Manasi Athmasthaha” i.e. “The establishment of mind in the Atman”
- The Yoga system takes Sankhya for its metaphysics.
- It differs from Sankhya in positing a god.
- This god is defined as a special Purusha, who is untouched by normal human defects.
- He is supposed to be the most ancient teacher.
- “OM” is his word.
- The sutras pertaining to Ishvara are found in PYS 1.23-1.29
- The PYS postulates Ashtanga yoga(Having eight steps) are Yama, Niyama, Aasana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyani and Samadhi. Not going to elaborate on some of the stages at they have to be learnt from the guru.
- Yama and Niyamas are the initial preparatory steps that involve purification, sense control, non-stealing, ahimsa, truthfulness, non-covetousness, self-study, living in solitude, devotion to Ishvara and so on.
- Though a god is mentioned and surrendering to him is mentioned, he is not responsible for breaking the ultimate bond of prakriti thus leading to moksha. The individual purusha has to work his way to it.
- The Yoga darshana accepts three realities Prakriti, purusha and Ishvara, though his role is limited to being an efficient cause.
- As in Sankhya, the 3 gunas Satva, Rajas and Tamo gunas, play an important role in creation.
- The gunas are actually physical entities and not just representing Peace and contentment (Satva), Activity (Rajas) and Sloth (Tamas). They are actually linked to Bhuta tanmatras and paramanus. More on this later.
This is the sutra which says that the yogi can conquer matter on meditating (Samyama).
Also he says that the 3 gunas are