Friday, January 19, 2018

Dharma as the basis of Yuga classification. (Part 3)

Part 4 -  Textualand epigraphic evidence of Dharma Yuga

All the above parts in a single paper in academia can be downloaded HERE

Yuga Dharma as basis for Human time scale

At several places, after the narration on Divya Yugas, the narrator switches over the Dharmic levels of different yugas. Dharma stands on all 4 legs in Krita, on 3 legs in Treta, on 2 legs in Dwapara and on only one leg in Kali yuga. The entry of a yuga is also known by the symptoms of degeneration of Dharma. For example, even though the Kali Maha Yuga of the Devas started after the exit of Krishna, the entry of Kali Purusha was stalled by Parikshit who allowed only a few sinful activities to take place. This gives rise to the opinion that (1) the exact entry date of a yuga is negotiable and (2) dharma is an indicator of yuga.

The entry date of a yuga of the Devas is non-negotiable as we know from the Sankalpa mantras. But Dharma is not fixed at all times. It oscillates thereby giving a leeway for a yuga to extend or retract. Before going into further details, let us know about a major feature associated with the end of a Divya yuga which is absent in other references to a switch over form one yuga to another.

This feature is the calamitous end witnessed at the end of a Yuga.

End of the Yuga – conflicting references.

At several places in Mahabharata we come across a description of fire, described as universal fire, samvartaka fire or Yuga fire. (MB 6-59, 7-198) This is also followed by a roar of clouds and universal floods (MB 7-142). Bheeshma describes a phenomenal fire engulfing all the worlds at the end of 1000 yugas, that is, at the end of a kalpa (MB 12-47).

Fire and deluge

The nature of fire is deduced from the reference to 2 blazing suns witnessed at the end of a yuga. Whenever two personalities were afflicted by weapons or in war with each other Mahabharata compares them with the 2 blazing suns at the end of a yuga.

(1) Krishna and Arjuna, afflicted by the arrows of Ashwatthama looked like 2 blazing suns seen at the end of a yuga (MB 8-17).

(2) Bheema and Ashvatthama looked so (MB 8-15)

(3) Nakula and Karna looked so (MB 8-24)

(4) Karna and Arjuna looked like 2 planets that arose for the destruction of the world at the end of the yuga (MB 8-87)

An understanding of what the 2nd sun stands for is known from the passage that describes the war between Yudhidhthira and Shalya. The blazing dart hurled by Yudhishthira at Shalya looked “like a large meteor falling from the skies at the end of the Yuga.” (MB 9-17)

This solves mystery of 2 suns at the end of the yuga. One of them is the sun. The other is an asteroid or meteor falling on the earth. It catches fire on falling and looks like a sun. An asteroid blazing like a sun must be huge in size and its impact will be felt globally.

This kind of catastrophic end of a yuga is not found in some other descriptions on the end of yuga!

Smooth transition between yugas.

In the passages describing the advent of Kalki Avatara, we find a smooth transition from Kali yuga to Krita yuga! There is no yuga fire or yuga flood or death and destruction at the end of this Kali yuga. Instead there is reference to reclamation of values and ethics thereby heralding the Krita yuga. The destruction is only of those that are causing the decay in Dharma.

Vishnu Purana 3-2 says, “ the end of the Kali or fourth age he (Vishnu) appears as Kalki, and reestablishes the iniquitous in the paths of rectitude.” 

Vishnu Purana 4-24 says, “By his irresistible might he (Kalki) will destroy all the Mlechchhas and thieves, and all whose minds are devoted to iniquity. He will then reestablish righteousness upon earth; and the minds of those who live at the end of the Kali age shall be awakened, and shall be as pellucid as crystal. The men who are thus changed by virtue of that peculiar time shall be as the seeds of human beings, and shall give birth to a race who shall follow the laws of the Krita age, or age of purity.”

 The same is echoed in Mahabharata in the words of sage Markandeya to Yudhsihthira (MB 3-189-190). He says that at the end of Kali yuga, Kalki will be born and

he will restore order and peace in this world crowded with creatures and contradictory in its course. And that blazing Brahmana of mighty intellect, having appeared, will destroy all things. And he will be the Destroyer of all, and will inaugurate a new YugaAnd surrounded by the Brahmanas, that Brahmana will exterminate all the mlecchas wherever those low and despicable persons may take refuge.

Having exterminated the thieves and robbers, Kalki will, at a great Horse-sacrifice, duly give away this earth to the Brahmanas, and having established anew the blessed rectitude ordained by the Self-create, Kalki, of sacred deeds and illustrious reputation, will enter a delightful forest, and the people of this earth will imitate his conduct, and when the Brahmanas will have exterminated the thieves and robbers, there will be prosperity everywhere on earth.”

The entire basis of this transition is DHARMA!

Basis of Yuga Dharma

The transgression of Dharma had happened many times in the past leading to overlapping of yugas. How was order restored in those times? A question similar to this was raised by Yudhishthira to Bheeshma in Mahabharata 12-139. In reply to this, Bheeshma quotes a dialogue between Sauvira king Satrunjaya and sage Bharadwaja.

Sauvira belongs to the Sindhu (Indus) region – the region that is now proved beyond doubt to have been a manufacturing and trading hub at the time of and after Mahabharata. Interestingly true to the nature of this region, Satrunjaya asked about the science of Profit! The questions included everything connected with trade, like acquiring an object, increasing the object, protecting the object and using the object leading to the generation of profits. How to get them all done? Bharadwaja’s reply is simple – establishment of the rod of chastisement of the king!

When the king is Dharmic, everything will fall in line.

100%  of it makes Krita yuga, 3/4th of it makes Treta yuga, ½ of it makes Dwapara yuga and ¼ th of it makes Kali yuga.

Ruler / king decides the Yuga.

Following are the references to Yuga being decided by the conduct (dharma) of the king (and therefore the people).

'O bull of Bharata's race, that Krita, Treta, Dwapara, and Kali, as regards their setting in, are all dependent on the king's conduct.'  (MB: Shanti parva -140)

'Whether it is the king that makes the age, or, it is the age that makes the king, is a question about which thou shouldst not entertain any doubt. The truth is that the king makes the age. The king is the creator of the Krita age, of the Treta, and of the Dwapara. The king is the cause of the fourth age called Kali. '  (MB: Shanti parva – 68)

'When the king properly abides by the penal code, without making any portion of it a dead letter, then that best of periods called the Krita Yuga sets in. Let not this doubt be thine, viz, whether the era is the cause of the king, or the king the cause of the era, for know this to be certain that the king is the cause of the era. It is the king that creates the Krita, the Treta, or the Dwapara age. Indeed, it is the king that is the cause of also the fourth Yuga viz, the Kali' Kunti (MB: Udhyoga parva -132)

“The king is the lord and father of the whole universe. He is time, he is Yuga and he is the creation, mobile and immobile. He is called Dharma because he holdeth all. It is Dharma that upholdeth all mankind. It is by Dharma that the three worlds are being preserved”.  (Valmiki Ramayana: 7-71)

In Kali yuga, the rule of law or Dharma is established by Kalki, thereby ushering in Krita yuga.
One must remember that this yuga scale is applicable to Bharata varsha ONLY (MB 6-10).

The Divya yuga measurement of time with destruction and deluge is applicable to the whole world at the end of each yuga and to the solar system at the end of Kalpa. But the cyclical repetition of 4 yugas measured by Dharma is applicable to Bharata varsha only. Every time a transgression of Dharma takes place Bhagawan appears (avatara) in this land only.  The identification of a yuga in terms of Dharma is reiterated by Narada, Hanuman, Vyasa and Markandeya among others which can be read in the Itihasas.

Treta yuga of Ramayana

The most important question is when did Treta Yuga of Ramayana happen?

Instant answer is that it did not happen lakh years ago as that scale pertains to Divya Yuga of the Devas and Brahma (galactic).

Thoughtful answer is that it happened some time before Krishnavatara when Dharma was 3/4th of what was in Krita yuga. Some notable features of this yuga are - there is no untimely death of kids, food is produced with little effort (like not breaking the earth but by sprinkling the seeds), kings are engaged in yajnas, presence of many Vedas, Brahmins and kshatriyas practicing emancipation etc. However overlap of yugas is reported in the Treta Yuga of Ramayana. Two such instances are found in Treta yuga that give us a better perspective on how the yugas were identified by our ancestors and sages.

Krita and Kali in the Treta Yuga of Rama.

War clouds had reached Lanka and Malyavan, the maternal grandfather of Ravana tried to convince Ravana to call for a truce with Rama. In that context Malyavan talks about Yugas being formed by Dharma!

He says that Dharma is on the side of ‘suras’ and ‘mahatman’ (high- souled Devas). Adharma is on the side of ‘asuras’ (demons) (VR:6-35-13)

When Dharma swallows Adharma, it becomes Krita yuga; when Adharma swallows Dharma, it stimulates Kali yuga. (VR: 6-35-14)

Therefore, while you (Ravana) were wandering in the worlds, Dharma was destroyed and you favoured Adharma. So the enemies are stronger than us. (VR: 6-35-15)

These 3 verses imply that in the period of Ravana, Kali yuga has appeared because Adharma was favoured by him as a king. When the king (ruler) is adharmic, the yuga is that of Kali. Though it was Treta Yuga, Kali had entered by the acts of Ravana.

But once he was over powered by Rama and Dharma was restored, that moment was Krita yuga.

Once Rama ascended to throne, it was Treta yuga dharma in place. Presence of 1/4th of Adharma in that period can be ascertained from many instances found in Uttara khanda which describe the rule of Rama. As an example, one can quote the suffering caused to a dog by a Brahman in penury (VR: 7- 70 & 71)

Krita in Treta yuga of Janaka.

There is reference to Krita yuga during the rule of Janaka of Mithila who was the father-in-law of Rama. This finds mention in Mahabharata (12-308) in a dialogue between Janaka and Sulabha, a bhikshuki about emancipation. Mahabharata says, ‘atha dharmayuge’ – in that Dharma yuga, referring to Krita yuga where Dharma is full.

The reason for this reference to the yuga of Janaka is known from the context where this appears. Yudhishthira asks Bheeshma whether there was anyone who attained emancipation without abandoning the domestic mode of life (Grahasthasrama). In reply Bheeshma picks out Janaka and starts the narration by referring to his yuga as Krita or Dharma yuga.

In Krita yuga there was no differentiation between ashramas and all Brahmins were engaged in emancipation. In Treta Yuga the ashrama differences have appeared and kshatriyas were entitled to seek emancipation. But that can happen only in the last two stages of Ashramas and not in the householder phase. But Janaka, though engaged in kingly duties and householder’s duties behaved like one from Krita yuga where these differences were nil. Janaka’s endeavour for emancipation finds a special mention in Bhagawad Gita also. His practice was that of one in Krita yuga.

This incident shows how pockets of other yugas can happen with reference to individuals. The previous case involving Malyavan shows how other yugas occur for regions when dharma is transgressed by the king.

Treta in Dwapara yuga.

Similar kind of overlap is reported in Mahabharata wherein sage Lomasa identifies a place in the river Yamuna as a junction of Treta yuga and Dwapara yuga. (MB: 3-125) The Dharma of the running yuga was Dwapara. But Treta was also noticed at that place. Looking for hints in those passages we do come across references to availability of food without effort and sacrifices done by kshatriyas like Mandhata. These two features are those of Treta yuga. The surroundings brimming with the flora is that of Treta. That continued till the times of Pandavas of Dwapara yuga when they visited that place. Sage Lomasa had identified that place as one where Treta and Dwapara co-existed.
Another reference of a similar kind is also found in Mahabharata reinforcing the idea that Yuga was identified on the basis of Dharma and there is scope for overlapping of yugas.

Kali in Treta Yuga.

In a holy spot in the region of river Narmada, sage Lomasa identifies a junction of Treta and Kali yuga (MB: 3-121) The narration takes place in Dwapara yuga and therefore Dharma had not yet declined to the level of Kali yuga then. But in that location, Kali yuga had overlapped with Treta yuga -the yuga that was supposed to be more Dharmic than Dwapara. The context lays bare the reasons for this reference.

In that place a Brahmin sage by name Chyavana was doing penance and the Kshatriya king Saryati was conducting many yajnas. These two practices are typical of Treta Yuga. The penance of Chayavana was so severe that an anthill covered him in due course. At that time the King Saryati with his family was camping at that place. The king’s daughter Sukanya was happily playing around. Everything is perfect. But the sage happened to see her through the gaps in the ant hill and kept watching her with lust and without her knowledge. This is Kali yuga Dharma! Kali had sprung in Treta yuga here.

The story goes further which can be read in Mahabharata. For our understanding another incident also happened here. Sukanya who was by now Chyavana’s wife had gone to fetch water. There she was spotted by the Aswin brothers who desired her even after coming to know that she was a married woman. Thus grave adhramic actions that are characteristic of Kali yuga were happening in Treta yuga at that location.

With all these, why that location and era came to be known as Treta Yuga? The reason is that even with all the transgressions that had happened, Dharma of the measure of Treta yuga was restored soon. Aswins regained their composure and Chayavana did a break-through yajna in which for the first time Aswins were offered Soma. Such an event can happen only in Treta Yuga.

Dwapara in kali yuga.

The overlap happened even in recent times of Kali yuga. The Vaishnavite text called ‘3000-padi Guru parampara prabhavam’ identifies four  Azhwars of the Vaishnavite tradition as belonging to Dwapara yuga. Other Azhwars were born in Kali Yuga. But it is well known from one of hymns of the four Azhwars (of Dwapara yuga), that they had lived in the former centuries of the Common Era under Pallava-rule.

One of the four Azhwars, by name Bhoothataazhwar specifically mentions about ‘Maamallai’ (olden name for Mahabalipuram) in his hymn (2nd Tiruvandhathi – 70). This name came into being only after the Pallava king. So it is very clear that this Azhwar and the other three who were his contemporaries had lived during Pallava reign in the present Kali Yuga. But why then the Acharya had written that they belonged to Dwapara yuga?

The only plausible explanation is that the reign of the Pallava king was more Dharmic with ½ in its fold as in Dwapara. Since the tradition is to identify by means of legs of Dharma, they have been identified as being born in Dwapara yuga.


Unknown said...

Wonderful read. Your insights and the logical explanations to confusing concepts about yuga are very convincing and enlightening. There is one question I have:

"If the yuga classification as krita, treta, dwapara and kali is according to the concept of yuga dharma, then it means we cannot give a time period for each yuga Eg. Treta yuga lasted from 8000-5000 BC?

If so, then how did the prevalent yuga occur in the the order krita, treta..?Is it because the kings/ rules of the land was voluntarily set to uphold yuga dharma in the order of krita, treta... or it was natural course of dharma/universal law for the prevalent yuga to happen in this order?"

Jayasree Saranathan said...

@ Unknown

//"If the yuga classification as krita, treta, dwapara and kali is according to the concept of yuga dharma, then it means we cannot give a time period for each yuga Eg. Treta yuga lasted from 8000-5000 BC?//

Yes, there is no reference to the start date and end date of Dharma yuga nor there is a reference to the duration of each yuga. The only yardstick is measure of Dharma, whether it is 3/4, 2/4 or 1/4. The Divya yuga (devas / celestial / galactic) has 4:3:2:1 ratio pertaining to the number of years. This Dharma yuga also has 4:3:2:1 ratio- but it is not about years, but about the level of Dharma!

They have also given numerous ideas on what is Dharma in each yuga. From that one can deduce the Yuga of the times. In Mahabharata you will be surprised to read elites like Yudhsithira and Bheema asking sages about Yugas, as though they don't know about that. The detailed explanation given to them will be on yuga Dharma only. For a reader of those passages, it appears that they are keenly grasping those explanations and cross checking with their times - to know whether it concurs with the Dharma of their times or on the decline. If on the decline they can apply correctives.

Decline had always happened. Those in the know of Yuga dharma had arrested the decline in their times. Rama did that. In the above article, the episode on Sauvira king Satrunjaya comes with a question on how to restore Dharma. The way to do it to uphold the Law - the law of chastisement.

Such a corrective was done by Rama in Ramayana when a young boy had an untimely death. This cannot happen in Treta yuga but can happen in Dwapara yuga. When the Dharma scale of Rama's time was that of Treta yuga, he could not allow it to degrade when his rule in on. So he went on to stop Sambuka who was engaged in penance which is yuga dharma of Kali yuga.

Similarly the passages on Yuga and Dharma in Mahabharata shows that the kings who listened to them had made sure that the yuga dharma that was on at their time concurring with Dwapara did not slide down.


Jayasree Saranathan said...

@ Unknown '

//If so, then how did the prevalent yuga occur in the the order krita, treta..?Is it because the kings/ rules of the land was voluntarily set to uphold yuga dharma in the order of krita, treta... or it was natural course of dharma/universal law for the prevalent yuga to happen in this order?"//

The naming order as Krita, Treat etc., is maintained as how the 60 year names of 5-year yuga of Jupiter cycle is maintained even today.

Another feature is the 4:3:2:1 ration maintained in Dharma and also in Avatara. The 10 avatars are distributed in the same ratio in Dharma yuga.

The decline in Dharma is gradual and also a natural course. It is like how a human body declines with age. The difference is human body completely gets destroyed at the end, but the Dharma does not die out completely. At the worst level it still remains at 1/4 th leg and swings back to full strength.

Look at the verses from Vishnu Purana I cited in the above article.

"the minds of those who live at the end of the Kali age shall be awakened, and shall be as pellucid as crystal. The men who are thus changed by virtue of that peculiar time shall be as the seeds of human beings, and shall give birth to a race who shall follow the laws of the Krita age, or age of purity.”

With decline, comes a realization that no more decline should be allowed. This is like what I told in the previous comment - of the elites who must have known about the Yugas keep asking sages about the yugas - to reassure themselves that dharma of their times is maintained and not allowed to decline and in case of decline doing the needful to restore.

Similarly in Kali yuga with decline in Dharma comes an anguish and realisation that no more of decline should be allowed.

This can be noticed in present times in Tamilnadu in the Vairamuthu controversy. Majority people are able to understand the level of adharma in the land and the attempts to destroy Vedic culture which is an identity of this land. We can witness people becoming aware of this and desiring for a revival of Veda Dharma. This is exactly the way Kali changes Time towards Krita. According to Vishnu Purana, this awareness and awakening will be complete and entire Bharat varsha will be brought under Veda dharma. That is the day of dawn of Krita yuga.

This is the natural course of TIME. It is Time that makes people behave the way as they do. That is what scriptures say. Sanjaya says so to Dhritharashtra grieving over the demise of his sons as follows:

"It is Time that burneth creatures and it is Time that extinguisheth the fire. All states, the good and the evil, in the three worlds, are caused by Time."

Vyasa says to Arjuna upon the death of Krishna and self-destruction of Vrishni clan as follows:

""All this has Time for its root. Time is, indeed, the seed of the universe, O Dhananjaya. It is Time again, that withdraws everything at its pleasure. One becomes mighty, and, again, losing that might, becomes weak. One becomes a master and rules others, and, again, losing that position, becomes a servant for obeying the behests of others. Thy weapons, having achieved success, have gone away to the place they came from. They will, again, come into thy hands when the Time for their coming approaches."

We can understand this present times on similar lines as follows:

People are Adharmic now, because it is Kali that makes them do. More and more people are becoming aware, that is also the play of Kali. Time and Dharma are very much intertwined.