Thursday, February 22, 2024

Ramayana – 3: Birth of Rama

There is ample evidence in Valmiki Ramayana stating that Rama was born in Spring season (Vasanta ritu) which coincides with the month of Caitra. Here is a sequence of events starting from Vasanta ritu three years before Rama was born. The sage Rishyasringa was brought to the kingdom by Dasaratha. When Vasanta ritu started the preparation for the Aśvamedha yajna was also started.

ततः काले बहुतिथे कस्मिंश्चित्सुमनोहरे |

वसन्ते समनुप्राप्ते राज्ञो यष्टुं मनोऽभवत् ||-१२-

{Meaning: After a lapse, some time when the spring season has come the king Dasaratha desired to perform the Vedic ritual (1-12-1)}

The preparation went on for a year at the end of which the ritual of the Aśvamedha was started. This also happened in the Vasanta ritu, says Ramayana.

पुनः प्राप्ते वसन्ते तु पूर्णः संवत्सरोऽभवत् |

प्रसवार्थं गतो यष्टुं हयमेधेन वीर्यवान् || -१३-

{Meaning: On completion of one full year another springtime arrived, and then Dasaratha a determined one to beget progeny by performing the Horse Ritual entered the ritual hall. (1-13-1)

The ritual of letting out the horse went on for a year at the end of which the horse returned to the ritual hall.

अथ संवत्सरे पूर्णे तस्मिन् प्राप्ते तुरंगमे |

सरय्वाश्चोत्तरे तीरे राज्ञो यज्ञोऽभ्यवर्तत || -१४-

{Meaning: Then after the completion of one year and on regaining the ritual horse, the emperor Dasaratha commenced his Vedic Ritual on the northern banks of River Sarayu. (1-14-1)}

By now the next Vasanta season had commenced when the final Yajna was done for three days. By that yajna Dasaratha got rid of his sins (1-14-58) and commenced the Putrakameshti yajna performed by Rishyasringa. The Yajna Purusha appeared from that yajna and offered a vessel of “Pāyasam”.

The narration further continues with how the Pāyasam was distributed among the three queens of Dasaratha. All these had happened in immediate succession in the Vasanta ritu. (Aśvamedha, Putrakameshti and the drinking of Pāyasam by the three queens of Dasaratha).

Upon completion of the yajna (Putrakameshti) six ritu-s passed by and in the twelfth month which happened to be Caitra month, Rama was born. From the previous Vasanta ritu when the yajna was done and the Pāyasam was drunk, six ritu-s had gone by. Once again it was the time of Vasanta ritu. That is the deduction from Ramayana.

ततो यज्ञे समाप्ते तु ऋतूनां षट् समत्ययुः |

ततश्च द्वादशे मासे चैत्रे नावमिके तिथौ || -१८-

{Meaning: On completion of the ritual, six seasons have passed by; then in the twelfth month, i.e., in Caitra masa, and on the ninth tithi of that Caitra month (1-18-8)}

Valmiki continues to say,

नक्षत्रेऽदितिदैवत्ये स्वोच्चसंस्थेषु पंचसु |

ग्रहेषु कर्कटे लग्ने वाक्पताविंदुना सह || -१८-

{Meaning: The star was that of Aditi Devata; five planets were in their own exalted positions; the planet Jupiter known as Vākpati (Lord of Speech) was with the Moon in the rising lagna of Karkataka (Cancer lagna) (1-18-9)}

In such a combination, Bhagawan Jagannatha was born to Kausalya.

Punarvasu was the star of Aditi. Kataka lagna indicates noon time for the month of Caitra. ‘Svocchasamtheshu pancasu’ indicates that five planets were in their respective exalted positions. Of them, Jupiter is singled out as the Lord of Speech joining Moon in Kataka. The specific mention of Jupiter is perhaps to emphasise Gaja Kesari Yoga formed by the conjunction of Jupiter and the Moon. This yoga is indicative of wisdom and power. By specifically mentioning Jupiter as Vākpati, Valmiki seems to emphasize Rama’s special ability to speak cleverly and correctly.

Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, and Venus were the five planets exalted in the horoscope of Rama which is produced below. The two left out planets were Mercury and Moon (leaving alone the nodes) of which Moon occupies its own house. Mercury’s position is not mentioned, but the simulated horoscope shows it in debility and also its recovery from debility by having joined the exalted Venus which causes Neecha Bhanga Raja Yoga for Mercury. In traditional discourse, Mercury is placed in Aries along with the Sun. Ketu was in the 12th according to elders, which means Rahu was in the 6th house.  As written earlier, the exact position of Rahu and Ketu (the lunar nodes) cannot be simulated due to the change in their positions at the time of comet-hit in 3136 BCE.

The year was Parābhava and the weekday was Monday. The Sun was exalted in the 10th house (Aries). Moon in Punarvasu in Kataka indicates that it was in the 4th pada of Punarvasu.

From the birth details, it is deduced that Rama was born in Mars Bhukti in Jupiter Maha dasa. Four years of Jupiter Maha dasa were remaining at his birth.

The peculiar reference to six seasons in pre-natal state looks odd but appears resolved once we look at the simulation. He was born in Nija māsa, with an additional Caitra having gone by as Adhika māsa. The Yajna rituals and the drinking of Pāyasam have occurred in the first month of Vasanta ritu. Conception might have taken in the second month of the Vasanta ritu.  This leaves out five seasons (10 months) for pregnancy- term. The Adhika māsa also got added towards the end of the term. On the 12th month, which was Nija Caitra, Rama was born at Abhijit Muhurta (noon time in Ayodhya) in Kataka lagna.

Birth of brothers of Rama

Next day morning, when Pushya was running, Bharata was born in Meena lagna (VR: 1-18-15). This lagna appears before sunrise in Caitra māsa. So, the weekday was Monday, as it was for Rama. Meena lagna was occupied by exalted Venus and debilitated Mercury. All the planets were in the same houses as were for Rama, but interpretation will vary as the lagna varies. The birth star was Pushya, making Saturn Maha Dasa as his birth time dasa. He was born in Moon Bhukti. His birth date was 10th January, 5114 BCE. Parābhava was the year of birth and the tithi was Shukla Navami only.

The twins of Sumitra, namely, Lakshmana and Shatrughna were born at noon time on the day after Rama’s birth in the star of the serpents (Aslesha) in the sign occupied by them (Kataka lagna) in Shukla Dasami (VR: 1-18-15). Simulation shows that it was 10th January, 5114 BCE on a Tuesday.

Simulation also shows Simha lagna (Leo) when Aslesha began, but it was Kataka lagna as per Valmiki Ramayana. This simulation is based on “Swiss ephemeris” and the observations of modern planetariums. Lagna advancing quickly from Kataka to Simha in the simulation for the year 5114 BCE means the software treats the point of Kataka – Simha as perihelion in 5114 BCE. That it was not so is the message from Ramayana of Kataka lagna when the moon had entered Aslesha.

Today this region in the zodiac marks the aphelion of the earth’s orbit; perihelion is at Sagittarius and Capricorn. The earth (lagna) moves slowly in Kataka- Simha (aphelion) but faster in Dhanush and Makara rasi (perihelion). The same pattern had existed in Rama’s time is what we understand from the birth of the twin brothers of Rama in Aslesha in Kataka lagna. The simulation showing advancement in lagna by one and a half hours is the result of continuous precession used by the simulators by which the earth’s orbit itself rotates completely. In reality it is not so, is the revelation from this input from Valmiki Ramayana.

(I wrote what I understood of the motions in lagna. Any other scientific explanation for why the simulator fails to show the birth of the twins in Kataka lagna in Aslesha is welcome.)

The date of birth of Lakshmana and Shatrughna was 10th January, 5114 BCE, in Parābhava year. They were born in Mercury Bhukti in Mercury Maha Dasa.

The Maha Dasa period (approximate to the extent of difference of few months) is as follows for the brothers:

Rama: Jupiter Maha Dasa till 4 years of age. After that Saturn Maha Dasa until his 23rd year.

Bharata: Saturn Maha Dasa till 12 years of age. After that Mercury Maha Dasa till 29th  year.

Lakshmana and Shatrughna: Mercury Maha Dasa till 17 years of age. After that Ketu Maha Dasa till 24 years of age.

The brothers experienced a joyful boyhood time until sage Vishvamitra entered their life.



Sundar said...

Which version of JHora are you using?
What settings are you using?
V8.0 of JHora, for the same date/time/place, shows Viswa-vasu as the year.
--Sundar With Regards

Jayasree Saranathan said...

In -5115 Caitra, it shows the previous year's name which was Vishwavasu. It was Adhika Caitra then. Next month was Nija caitra Now check from 1st January 5114 BCE (the next year) it will show Parabhava.

I noticed that for old days such as this the entire year is shown in the same year name even after Caitra of next year started. Only from Jan 1st, the change of year is shown. That is software mistake. I pointed this out in a couple of articles where the change of year name is not indicated if the year started in December.

Sundar said...

No. We are missing something. Unfortunately I am unable add screenshot to this comment. As you said in the comment
I entered the following data in JHora V8.0
Birthdate- Month: January Date:1 Year: -5114 Calendar used: Julian
Birthtime- Hours:12 Minutes:10 Seconds:0 (0-24Hrs)
City name: Ayodhya (Longitude:82E12 Latitude:26N48
Ayanamsa: Traditional Lahiri (285-51-55.46)

With these above birth data, I am not seeing Parabhava. I am seeing Viswa-vasu - Karthika
Even if I change ayanamsa to SSS - I still see Viswa-vasu-Karthika
I wonder if this is anything to do with the fact there is no 0 BCE and while calculating ahargana - it results in +1 before 1BCE?
BTW - I read your post. I agree with you on that. But do you have a solution or an alternate to kali number (ahargana) or julian day number?

Jayasree Saranathan said...

You have used Julian calendar. I used Gregorian since we use Gregorian calendar.
So change Julian to Gregorian and check. You will get the dates and details I have given.
Moreover this proves once again that julian days do not match with our panchanga system.
I think you have not read my article on this

Sundar said...

I did read it (I said in my previous comment - I read your post and linked it).
Now, JHora shows as you say in your post, after using "Restore default calculation options".
Thanks for being with me on this s/w issue.
Coming back to your related post ( - so what is the right way to calculate the vedic year.
I calculate the year number as follows (as I picked up from a book on SSS)
samvat = (kali_no + 27 + int((kali_no * 211 - 108) / 18000)) % 60
But this one also, I am not sure will work - because kali_no is negative. Julian number also will be negative for 5114 BCE.
Is the error always 1 year for any date before kali yuga date?
Can you please share the correct formula. Thanks!

Jayasree Saranathan said...

1. Please don't bring in Julian day or Julian year. Julian day is preferred for astronomy purposes and not true to the day concept. Julian calendar had missing dates.

2. Lakhs of years of Yuga concept was introduced only after Krishna left and Kali Maha yuga was introduced. Before that only Dharma yuga concept was there. No use taking Kali yuga base for pre-Kali times.

3. In SS, only the zero degree point (mid point of the equinoctial path) has perfect planetary combination. At other times you cannot use the old calculation. In one of the articles in that series I have shown the different lengths of vedic day recorded in different times in the last 1000 years. The calculation was a reviewed atleast once every century. This can be seen in inability to produce the combination of Rama's birth in SS settings. Even for today SS doesn't show the exact result. Reason being we simply don't know how to calculate and there is no standard calculation. It is same as what scientists say - that rate of precession cannot be extrapolated to all time in the past or future and that it applies only for the present.

It is for this reason Siddhantas known as Karana Siddhnatas were written every century or less, as and when they noticed a change in the rate of ayanamsa. Based on that the planetary positions were re-calculated. Panchanga writers will start using the most recent Karana Siddhanta. So one cant get the calculation right with outdated formula. Similarly you can see in Brihat samhita a formula for calculating a date in the Jupiter cycle. It doesn't work. It was written for the period when it was made. We lost continuous monitoring and calculation.

The rate of ayanamsa is not constant which is one of the reasons for inability to get the exact combinations. You can check this with eclipse data of the inscriptions and compare with NASA data on eclipses. I did that comparison by taking a random eclipse in every century for 2000 years. You wont get them right with NASA data.

I am of the opinion, that only in the upcoming equinoctial cycle, when science would have advanced well, it will start recording the ever changing rate of ayanamsa once the equinox turns forward.

4. There is no issue of error of 1 year in Vedic accounting. Kali beginning was 3179 years before Shalivahana shaka. That is how we look at the years. The year numbering, week days etc are continuous in Jhora. As such Raudra was the 0 year. Only when you express time in western astronomy simulator or in Julian calendar, the problem arises.

5. I don't understand your question - the error of 1 year. I wrote that there is an error of one tithi before 2nd Sep 3136 BCE.