Friday, July 10, 2009

Taj Mahal was built with ancient Indian engineering

Professor Balasubramaniam of IIT, Kanpur has once again confirmed the use of Amgula-pramana in ancient India – this time in the engineering plans of Taj Mahal. His recent finding coming after similar findings on Iron pillar and Harappan sites is once again a clinching evidence of the self same culture of Akand Bharath that was rested on Vedic culture. This is the same measurement technique found in Vaastu texts of Vishwakarma, Mayamata and in Shilpa granthas.

A detailed post on this is already available in this blog.

Continuing civilization from Harappa to Iron pillar

From these books on building and technology, we know that the Amgula dimension found by the Professor has 3 variations as Matrasaya and Madhyama and PrAsaya.

What the Professor has found out as being similar in all buildings is PrAsaya- amgula that was used in building any structure, from residential houses to palaces &  Public buildings and in town planning.

I wish he takes up the research on utility areas of Harappan sites or any excavated site in the nature of trenches, tanks, store houses, rock cut temples etc. According to Vishwakarma Prakashika, Madhyama- amgula which is slightly different from the above mentioned one must be used in these structures.

Matrasaya amgula was used in making weapons, appliances, yaaga shala and for constructing stables.

Amgulam is the circumference of the Thumb finger and the finger itself is known as Amguli.  Hanuman gave the Raja mudra of Rama to Sita in Ashoka vana, which was nothing but the Ratna-amguleeyam – the Ring of Ruby worn by the Royalty of Rama's Dynasty in the thumb finger. Amgulam and amgulee are thus very basic terms in this country for all times in the past.

Continuing Indian civilization from a timeless past is an indisputable fact and the Professor's research adds another proof of it.

-         jayasree



Taj Mahal built with ancient Indian engineering


July 8, 2009

In same measures: Harappa to Taj

K. S. Jayaraman


A researcher analysing designs of historical buildings and monuments of India has made a profound discovery. He has shown that the unit of length used by the builders through the ages surprisingly remained the same for over 3900 years. This reveals a new dimension in metrology — the science of measurement — in the Indian subcontinent.


From the Harappan settlements of 2000 B. C. and the Delhi Iron Pillar of Gupta period (320–600 AD) to the 17th century Taj Mahal, the unit 'angulamhad remained the standard of measurement in engineering plans, says Ramamurthy Balasubramaniam from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Kanpur.


Angulam and its multiples vitasti (12 angulams) and dhanus (108angulams) find mention in the Indian treatise Arthasastra by Kautilya who codified the metrology that was prevalent around 300 B.C. But the exact value of angulam was derived only in 2008 by Michel Danino, the French author who made India his home.


Danino who studied the Dolavira settlement — the largest Harappan civilization site in India — found1 that the dimensions used were exact multiples of 1.904 metre, a unit that he assumed to be thedhanus mentioned in Arthasastra. Further, taking dhanus to be 108angulams, Danino derived the value of angulam to be 1.763 cm.


Balasubramaniam, a professor of materials and metallurgical engineering, says he got interested in metrology after Danino's derivation of the value of angulam and his own observation2 that a terracotta scale of Harappan civilisation from Kalibangan, that was given to him for analysis, indicated markings of 1.75 cm.


"Seeing 1.75 cm markings on the Harappan scale and Danino's derived value of 1.763 cm for angulam no doubt excited me," Balasubramaniam told Nature India. "That prompted me to carry out dimensional analysis of some of India's historical structures to see if their builders used a standardised unit of measurement," he said.


Balasubramaniam who studied the 1600 year old Delhi Iron Pillar3found that its dimensions "matched remarkably well" with the units of angulam and dhanus of the Harappan civilization. "For example, the total height of the pillar is precisely four dhanus and several measures come out as whole numbers of vitasti," he said.


The IIT professor had also carried out dimensional analysis of the earliest engineered caves at Barabar and Nagarjuni Hills in Bihar (Ashokan period, 300 B. C.), the Gupta Temple at Deogarh in Uttar Pradesh (6th century AD) and very recently4 the Taj Mahal in Agra.


"All these studies confirm the use of a constant basic measurement unit of angulam," the IIT professor said. "What is surprising is the fact that the constant of 1.763 cm, when matched for the angulam,leads to the realisation of the other multiples," Balasubramaniam said, "and surprisingly, important historical structures of the Indian subcontinent show a more than good match with these multiples."


For instance he found4 that the modular plan of the Taj Mahal complex is based on use of grids of sides measuring 60 and 90vitasti. The mausoleum was designed on a master square of 270vitasti to the side – a number that allows the area to be divided into nine smaller squares of side 90 vitasti.


"Further subdivision of the 90 vitasti length in thirds is evident in the length of the large arched doors (60 vitasti) and the small arched doors (30 vitasti) on each (outer) face of the mausoleum," Balasubramaniam explained. "We now know that the modular design and architecture of the Taj is based on Indian principles and there is nothing foreign in the design plan," Balasubramaniam said.


According to Balasubramaniam, the important outcome of his research is that it has established the continuity of metrological tradition from the Harappan civilisation down to pre-modern India indicated by the fact that the unit of angulam matches so well the dimensions of important monuments.


"This implies an unbroken engineering tradition in the use of theangulam over a period of more than 3900 years which is really amazing," he said.

The tradition was broken with the adoption of British units in early twentieth century. "With the new knowledge we can now analyse all the important ancient structures in India, using 1.763 cm as the standard with different multiplying units. This work will open a new chapter in metrological studies," he said.


But how did the angulam knowledge get transmitted through the ages to maintain continuity? "It is reasonable to propose that the workers were following some kind of scale that was handed over through generations," says Balasubramaniam. "Otherwise, such a good match of the dimensions cannot be due to chance



1. Danino, M. New insights into Harappan town-planning, proportions, and units, with special reference to Dholavira. Man Environ. 33, 66-79 (2008)

2.  Balasubramaniam, R. et al. Analysis of terracotta scale of Harappan civilization from Kalibangan. Curr. Sci. 95, 588-589 (2008)

3. Balasubramaniam, R. On the mathematical significance of the dimensions of the Delhi Iron Pillar. Curr. Sci. 95,766-770 (2008)

4 Balasubramaniam, R. New insights on the modular planning of the Taj Mahal. Curr. Sci. 97, 42-49 (2009)




Unknown said...

Thia is merely to support your conclusion.
The line quoted above were spoken to the captive king of Delhi-Prithvi Raj Chauhan by his court poet/charan
well wisher /confident.
Based on this input the shot the arrow on the sound narrowly missed -Mahamud ghazavni.

jayasree said...

Thanks Mr Mohan for this information. This is quite interesting. I think there are two versions about this in Prithvi raj's life - that he succeeded in killing Ghori by this hint and / or that he narrowly missed him. There is another version that he shot at Ghori just by the sound of his voice.

Dhanur veda or the art of archery was unbelievably skillful and was highly developed even in Ramayana times, that no one can disbelive the story that Prithviraj could kill his enemy by identifying the direction of his voice.

The episode you have quoted also makes an interesting inference about the measurement used in the building where Ghori was then present (in Afghanistan?)

The mention of Hasta pramAN in this hint could have been of 3 types, Utthama, madhyama or athama hasta pramana. There is slight difference between all these three in the descending order from Utthama to Athama.

The basis of this Hasta pramaNaa is the height of the owner of the house which is known as 'Purusha pramaNaa'. The practice was to build the places of residence on the basis of the height of the owner of the place, if not, the height of his first wife or if not, the height of the eldest son. The reason is obvious.

Persons or purusha pramana were divided into 3 categories of height - the utthama pramana of men 6'9" taller, the madhyama pramana of height 6' and athama pramana of 5'3".

Based on the height of the owner coming under any of these three categories, the hasta pramana was decided for measurement of the height and breadth of the house and the rooms.

Usually this height that goes in the name of 'hasta' is one fifth of the total height measured from the foot of the person to the tip of the right ring finger of his hand that is stretched upwards.
There are other units also to decide the pramana of hasta. But the mostly widely used one was this.

Prithviraj had already seen Ghori in the first war where he defeated him. So when his friend mentioned the distance and height, he must have calculated the height of the building on the basis of the height of the Sultan thinking that it was built by him. Since it is said that he missed the target, it means the arrow had flown above Ghori's head. That means the house was built on a pramana of a lesser height than Ghori's! One reason could be that it was not the own house/ palace of Ghori - it must have been someone else's house / palace occupied by Ghori after defeating the person.

That person must have been of the purusha pramana of the category lower to Ghori's.

Thinking from this angle, it becomes increasingly clear that most buildings and palaces of the Mughals were indeed the ones captured from previous rulers of Hindustan and re-christened. Agra Palace is one!

This also shows that the science of civil engineering in India is very old and Vaastu writers of yore have said that this science was not developed by any man but given as Upadesa by Sun God Himself, who was known as Vishwakarma!

politicalpost said...

Late Professor P. N. Oak wrote a book Taj Mahal is a Temple Palace in which he gives ample evidence that Taj Mahal was a Temple for Shiva and a Palace for Hindu King.This evidence can be see on website of Stephen Knapp " Was Taj Mahal a Vedic Temple" Those who like to persue truth will find this book and this site very interesting.Recent find by Proffessor Balasubranium on ancient units of dhanus and continuity of history of Indian building over 3500 years shows that Taj Mahal was built by Indians as an addition proof.