Thursday, July 15, 2010

Dhrishtadyumna, the probable ancestor of the VeL kings. (World Tamil Conference series 11)



Verse 201 in Puranauru traces the origin of the VeL king IrungoveL to an ancestor who was born from a sacrificial fire conducted by a sage of the North.

நீயே, வடபால் முனிவன் தடவினுள் தோன்றிச்,
செம்பு புனைந்து இயற்றிய சேண்நெடும் புரிசை,
உவரா ஈகைத், துவரை ஆண்டு,
நாற்பத்து ஒன்பது வழிமுறை வந்த
வேளிருள் வேளே!

There is only one instance of such a birth in olden texts. That comes in Mahabharata in the birth of the twins - Dhrishtadyumna and Draupadi.

The Northern sage who did that homa was known as Yaja. He was assisted by Upayaja. It was Upayaja who suggested Yaja's name to King Drupada when he approached him for an idea to get a son capable of vanquishing Drona.


In Mahabharata chapter 1-169 we can get the details of this sage.

To quote other places where the birth of a son from sacrificial fire is indicated:-

Mbh.1.63.3167:- "Then was born Dhrishtadyumna, of the splendour of Agni himself, from the sacrificial fire."

 

Mbh.1.167.8582:- "The Pandavas said, How, O Brahmana, did the birth of Dhrishtadyumna the son of Drupada, take place from the sacrificial fire?"

 

 

It is therefore possible to connect the VeL King IrungoveL to Dhrishtadyumna from what Kapilar says. .

The gap in years that is mentioned in terms of 49 generations requires further research.

 

Dhrishtadyumna lived during the times of Mahabharata war.

That happened around 3000 BC.

If IrungoveL was a direct descendant of Dhrishtadyumna, this poem by Kapilar must have been sung much earlier and not 2000 years ago.

Kapilar's time period is needed to be researched and we have numerous poems by him in various Sangam texts.

An inscription on his death is said to be unearthed near Pudukkottai.

Kapilar holds the key to the time of migration of VeL kings from Dwaraka.

 

 

There is another input from this poem in Puranauru that shows a stronger link to Dhrishtadyumna.

It comes from a titular name that Kapilar uses to address this king.

 

He calls him as "Pulikadimaal" (புலிகடி மால்). He uses the same title in 2 songs. 

 

(ஒலியற் கண்ணிப் புலிகடி மாஅல்!)


(தாழ்ந்த கண்ணியை உடைய புலி கடி மாலே!

Meaning:- Puli kadi maal,  who wears a lowering garland of flowers called Kanni )

 

Kapilar has sung 2 songs on this king, the first one discussed in the previous post and the next one is compiled as a continuation of the first poem. From the next poem (202) we know that the king has rejected the suggestion by Kapilar to marry the daughters of Paari.

We also know that Paari and IrungoveL belonged to the same lineage called Evvi.

Since they belonged to the same clan, Kapilar had thought of approaching him for marriage.

 

 

There was another king, Vicchikko whom Kapilar approached with the same request but he also rejected the suggestion. A saddened Kapilar then married the girls to Brahmin boys.

 

 

There are other Evvis also. There was a Vel Evvi whose wife did death ceremony of offering rice balls to him on his death (Purananuru - 234).

All these Evvis must have some connection with the king who was born of the sacrificial fire.

 

 

We have to explore northern literature on Dhrishtadyumna or other Yadava kings for a term resembling Evvi. 

 

Coming to the Titular name "Pulikadimaal" (புலிகடி மால்), some commentators are of the opinion that this king was a predecessor of Hoysala kings who ruled between 10 and 14 centuries AD.


Pulikadi maal means one who threatened the tiger. புலியைக் கடிந்தமையால், அவன் புலிகடி மால் எனப் பெயர் பெற்றான்.
There is an opinion that this king was the one who killed the tiger that was about to pounce on a sage.

The Hoysala history in Karnataka has a similar story.
But the time period of Hoysalas was much later than this king.

Moreover  Kapilar, displeased with IrungoveL's rejection of the marriage offer cursed him in the next song.

The Vel kingdoms have become unknown later.

So the title must have some other relevance and is not connected to Hoysalas.



There is a name Maal in this title which denotes Thirumaal or Vishnu or Narayana.

The king is obviously referred to as Vishnu or in the image of Vishnu.

There is a mention of name as the Lord of tigers attributed to Krishna by Yudhishtira in Mahabharata.


Mbh.13.17.2684 :-

"Thou art of the form of that lord of Tigers who is worshipped in the country of the Kalingas"

Vishnu or Thirumaal had been known as Puli-maal or 'Vishnu the Tiger'.

It is known from chronicles on Kalinga (Orissa) that Siva was worshiped in Kalinga in the form of a Tiger and was called Vyaghreswara.

 

 

In the chapter quoted above, Yudhishtira was in praise of Krishna in different names that are attributable to Brahman or the all pervading One deity.

He has seen Krishna in the image of Vyaghreswara which is the tiger form of Shiva.

That is how Vishnu could have come to get a connection with tiger as Puli kadi maal or Pulimaal or Maal, the Tiger.

 

 

Dhrishtadyumna also has a connection to Kalinga.

During the Mahabharata war, Kalinga was on the side of Duryodhana because he was married to the Kalinga princess.

The battle was very fierce with Bheema fighting against the Kalingas.

From Mahabharata 6- 54 it is known that Dhrishtadyumna rushed to the help of Bheema and succeeded in countering the Kalingas.

Perhaps his valour in the war against the Kalingaswas was remembered as their God (Siva in Tiger form).

Dhrishtadyumnaa's allegiance to Krishna might have earned him the title which his descendants in Tamil nadu could have kept for themselves as Puli kadi maal.

 

 

This is not unusual because the Cholans were known as Sembians (செம்பியன் ) because they were the descendants of Sibi.

Sibi became Sembian in Tamil. We have to explore whether a term with a meaning 'winning a tiger' is found in the folklore of Orissa or Gujarat or in locations of Mahabharata war.  

 

 

What is deduced in the final analysis is that the Vel king had his predecessor in the North in the areas where IVC flourished.

The kingly families had migrated to the South.

They were not known as Dravidians.

They were not the Tamil kings.

They co existed with the 3 dynasties of the Tamil kings.

And they were never accepted by the Tamil kings.

They were always pitted against each other.

So tracing Tamils' connection to a Dravidian population of the IVC is limited to this king (or Vels in general) and others which I will discuss in the next post.

 

 

The culture and language could have been the same because the kings from the North had settled in the South and ruled over the people here.

A common language with Tamil connection might have been there, like how Hindi is a widely spoken language today as a common language for communication among the people of different parts of India.


 

 

 

13 comments:

Shiva S said...

I have read your other blog where you argue that IVC is post MBH era. For the sake of argument let's say it is true. Then why are there no archaeological evidences like that of IVC in any other places other than Indus-Saraswathi region ? Why didn't the same people build similar mansions in places other than IVC area ?

jayasree said...

You have not read the many other articles of mine on this topic. May be you can browse and read. IVC is spread across a vast area of India upto Gujarat where more evidences are coming up. The reason for absence of Harappa - Mohenjadaro like evidences is because, the land is in continuous usage / occupation and not vacant (as in Mohenjadaro and Harappa)in most of IVC regions and rest of India. The architecture is a continuing thing of India and what you find in IVC sites is no different from what we have in rest of India.

This culture even pre-dates IVC. Read the 8000 year old Rakhi garhi in Haryana here: http://jayasreesaranathan.blogspot.in/2013/01/8000-years-old-village-in-haryana.html

A crisp narration of the genesis of the people of present day India can be read here: http://jayasreesaranathan.blogspot.in/2012/12/mu-to-lemuria-kumari-kandam-to-sumeria_21.html

In several other articles, I had analysed different facets of this.

N. Murali Naicker said...

The "Purananuru" (poem-201) was written by the great poet "Kabilar" and the same has been scrutinized and verified by the eminent scholars, Dr. U.V. Swaminatha Iyer, Thiru. Devaneya Pavanar and Thiru. Natana Kasinathan Iyya. All the scholars had/have no objection to the "Purananuru-201 Poem"

Even, Thiru. Devaneya Pavanar in his book "Dravida Thai" (Page-55 to 57) clearly says that, the "Hoysala Kings" are the descendants of sangam age "Velir Irungovel" . who came from the "Fire-pit" (Agni-kunda) and ruled the "Dwaraka". Thiru. Devaneya Pavanar further says that, the king "Vira Vallala Deva-III", who referred/mentioned in the "Arunachala Puranam" had ruled "Thiruvannamalai.
Therefore, "Devaneya Pavanar" agreed that, the Sangam Age "Velir Irungovel" descendants are "Hoysala Kings" and the "Vira Vallala Deva-III, who had ruled "Thiruvannamalai" belongs to "Vanniya Kula Kshatriya" (Agni Kula Kshatriya), since the 14th century A.D. Arunachalapuranam clearly says "Hoysala Vira Vallala Deva-III" as ""Vanni Kulathinil Varum Manna" (வன்னி குலத்தினில் வரு மன்னா) and "Anal Kulathon" (அனல் குலத்தோன்). Meckenzie Manuscript "Yakshagana" also says the "Arunachalapuranam" 7th chapter story of Hoysala King "Vira Vallala Deva-III.

Appended below are the "Dravida Thai" of Thiru. Devaneya Pavanar (Page - 55 to 57) :

கன்னட நாட்டிற் சிறந்த பகுதி மைசூர்ச் சீமையாகும். மைசூரில் தற்போது ஹலெபீடு (Halebid) என வழங்கும் துவரை நகர் (துவார சமுத்திரம்) கி.மு. 2000 ஆண்டுகட்கு முன்னர் செந்தமிழ் நாட்டைச் சேர்ந்ததாயிருந்தது. இது துவராபதி எனவும் வழங்கும்.

நச்சினார்க்கினியர், "அகத்தியனார்........துவராபதிப் போந்து நிலங்கடந்த நெடுமுடியண்ணல் வழிக்கண் அரசர் பதினெண்மரையும் பதினெண்குடி வேளிருள்ளிட்டாரையும் அருவாளரையுங் கொண்டு போந்து காடு கெடுத்து நாடாக்கி" எனத் தொல்காப்பியப் பாயிரயுரையிலும் "மலையமாதவன் நிலங்கடந்த நெருமுடியண்ணலுழை நரபதியருடன் கொணர்ந்த பதினெண்வகைச் குடிப்பிறந்த வேளிர்க்கும்" என அகத்திணையியல் 32 ஆம் நூற்பாவுரையிலும் கூறியுள்ளார்.

பண்டைச் சேரநாட்டின் மைசூர்ச் சீமையின் தென் பகுதியும் சேர்ந்திருந்தது.

கடைக்கழக காலத்தில் மைசூர்த் துவரை நகரை ஆண்டவன் இருங்கோவேள் என்னும் தமிழ்ச் சிற்றரசன். அவன் வடபக்கத்தில் ஒரு முனிவரின் ஓம குண்டத்தில் தோன்றிக் துவரை நகரை நாற்பத்தொன்பது தலைமுறையாகத் தொன்றுதொட்டு ஆண்டுவந்த வேளிர்களுள் ஒருவன் என்றும், ஒரு முனிவர் தவஞ்செய்து கொண்டிருக்கையில் அவர்க்கு இடையுறு செய்யவந்த ஒரு புலியை அவர் எவற்படி கொன்றமையால் புலிகடிமால் எனப்பட்டானென்றும் குறப்படுவன் :

"நியே, வடபான் முனிவன் தடவினுட் டோன்றிச்
செம்பு புனைந்தியற்றிய சேணெடும் புரிசை
உவரா வீகைத் துவரை யாண்டு
நாற்பத் தொன்பது வழிமுறை வந்த
வேளிருள் வேளே விறற்போ ரண்ணல்
தாரணி யானைச் சேட்டிருங் கோவே
ஆண்ட னுடைமையிற் பாண்கடனாற்றிய
ஒளியற் கண்ணிப் புலிகடி மா அல்"

என்று கபிலர் பாடுதல் காண்க.


பிற்காலத்தில் 11-ஆம் நூற்றாண்டில் துவார சமுத்திரத்தில் (Halebid) நிறுவப்பட்ட ஹொய்சள பல்லாள மரபு கடைக் கழகக் காலப் புலிகடிமாலின் வழியதே. பல்லாளன் என்னும் பெயர் வல்லாளன் என்னும் தமிழ்ச் சொல்லின் திரிபு.

திருவண்ணாமலையில் வல்லாள மகாராசன் என்னும் ஓர் அரசன் இடைக்காலத்தில் ஆண்டதாக அருணாசலபுராணம் கூறும்."

N. Murali Naicker said...

The "Vanni" (or) "Agni" means "Fire". The kings (Kshatriyas) created from the "Fire Pit" (Yaga Kunda) to rule this earth and to establish "Dharmam".


In this connection, I hereby submit the "Mount Abu Vimala Temple Inscription of 1378 A.D", which says, the "Kings" generated from the "Fire-Pit" :-


"The first part begins with the well-known story how on the mountain Arbuda there sprang from the fire-pit (anala-kunda, agni-kunda) of the sage vasishtha the hero Paramara. In his lineage appeared the hero Kanhada Deva ; and in his family there was a chief named Dhandhu (Dhandhu Raja), who was Lord of the town of Chandravati and who, averse from rendering homage to the Chaulukya King Bhima Deva" (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-IX, No.18, page-151).


The Rajapura plates of Madhurantaka Deva, 1065 A.D. says, there are 36 "Agni Kulas" :-


"The grant was made by the King Madhurantaka Deva, who belonged to the Chhindaka family of the Naga (Cobta) race" (page-178).

"Madhurantaka Deva belonged to the Chhindaka family, one of the 36 Agnikulas mentioned by Chand Bardai, the court poet of Prithviraja" (page-178). (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-IX No.23).

The "Nagavamsi Inscriptions" reveals, that they are "Kshatriyas" and they belongs to "Kasyapa Gotra" and their symbol is "Tiger with a calf" :

"The dynasty claims to belong to the Nagavamsa and the Kasyapa gotra, to have a tiger with a calf as their crest and to be the lords of Bhogavati the best of the cities" (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-IX, No.19, page-161), (Narayanpal stone inscription of queen Gunda-Mahadevi, the mother of Somesvara Deva).


"In front of this temple, I found a slab with a ancient sanskrit and Telugu inscription on both sides ; the temple of Mahadeva where the slab was found was built by a Raja Somesvara Deva, a Nagavamsi Kshatriya, in the year 1130 A.D." (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-IX, No.19, page-162), (Barsur inscription of Ganga-Mahadevi wife of Somesvara Deva).


From the above evidence, it is established that, Agni kula Kshatriyas generated from the "Yaka-kunda" to rule this earth. "Vanniya Kula Kshatriyas" are called as "Agni Kula Kshatriyas" in Andhra Pradesh. "Vanniya" is the synonym of "Agni".

(Cont'd........)

N. Murali Naicker said...

In the sangam literature "Purananuru" (hymns-201) the poet "Kabilar" says that, the "Irungovel" (Pulikadimal) came from the "Fire-pit" (Agni-kunda) of the sage "Vadapal Munivan" to rule "Dwaraka". The king "Irungovel" hails from the "Velir clan" and the scholars thinks that, "Irungovel" descendants were "Hoysala kings".

"நியே, வடபான் முனிவன் தடவினுட் டோன்றிச்" (புறம்-201), (Purananuru Age - 2nd century B.C.)


The eminent scholars Dr. U.V. Swaminatha Iyer considers the "Vadapal Munivan" with "Sambu Maha-munivar" with the help of evidences such as "Vishwapurana-Saram" and "Deiviga-Ula of Irrattai Pulavar". The "Vishwapurana-Saram" (15th poem) says the following :-

"சம்புமா முனிவன் வேள்வி தழல் தருமரபில் வந்தோன்"


In the Thirumoolar's Thirumanthiram, the sage "Vadapal Thavamuni" is mentioned that, he created the "Fire-pit" :

"அங்கி உதயம் வளர்க்கும் அகத்தியன்
அங்கி உதயஞ்செய் மேல்பா லவனொடும்
அங்கி உதயஞ்செய் வடபால் தவமுனி
எங்கும் வளங்கொள் இலங்கொளி தானே" (திருமூலர் திருமந்திரம் - 338)


The "Vanniya Puranam", "Silai Ezhupathu" clearly says that, Vanniyar came from the Fire-pit of sage "Sambu Maha Munivar" to rule the earth and to establish "Dharmam". The "Sambuvarayar Chieftains" referred them in the inscriptions/Ekkambaranathar Ula, as "Sambu-Kula Chakravarthy" and the "Pannattar" (Vanniyas) referred them in inscription as "Sambuvar-Kulapathi Pannattar".


The great Hoysala king "Vira Vallala Deva-III" referred as "Vanni Kulathinil Varum Manna" (வன்னி குலத்தினில் வரு மன்னா) and "Anal Kulathon" (அனல் குலத்தோன்) in the the authentic work "Arunachala Puranam" of 14th century A.D. The Velir "Irungovel" (Pulikadimal) of Sangam Age is considered as the ancestors of "Hoysalas".

(Cont'd.......)

N. Murali Naicker said...

The great "Hoysalas" referred them as :-


"பிருதிவல்லபன் மகாராசாதிராச பரமெஸ்வர
துவாராபதி புரவராதீஸ்வர யாதவகுலாம்"

(S.I.I. Vol-VI, No.35), (Bosala Vira Ramanatha Devar, Jeyangondanatha temple, Mannargudi, Tanjore).


"Hoysala race, sprung from Yadu" (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-VII, page-72).


"In the lineage of Yadu (the legendary) king sala, sasakapura acquired the named Hoysala" (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-VII, Page-73).


Therefore, the great "Hoysala Kings" (Kshatriyas) emerged from the line of "Yadu", "Yadava". "Vanni Kula" (Agni Kula).


The great "Hoysalas Kings" descedants are "Vijayanagara Kings" (Sangama, Chaluva, Tuluva) :-


"In the Yadu's race, Samgama ; his sons Harihara and Bukka" (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-VII, Page-80).


"Vijaya Nagara lamp pillar inscription of the time of Harihara-II (the son of Bukka-I, of the Yadava race)." (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-VII, Page-80).


"In the race of the Yadavas, Samgama ; his son Vira-Bhukka or Bhukka (Bukka-I) married Gauri ; their son Harihara (II)." (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-III, Page-120), (Nallur Plates of Vira Pratapa Harihara (Harihara-II).


The "Devula Palli Plates of Immadi-Nrisimha" (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-VII, Page-78) states that :-

"It would appear also that Nrisimharaya was probably related to the kings of the first dynasty of karnata empire, since both claimed to belong to the Yadava line of the lunar race of Kshatriyas. Saluva Nrisimharaya, father of Immadi-Nrisimha, the donor of the present grant, and the second by Nrisimharaya's general 'Narsenaque' or 'Narasimha', the founder of the Tuluva dynasty".

(Cont'd)

N. Murali Naicker said...

The great "Hoysalas" referred them as :-


"பிருதிவல்லபன் மகாராசாதிராச பரமெஸ்வர
துவாராபதி புரவராதீஸ்வர யாதவகுலாம்"

(S.I.I. Vol-VI, No.35), (Bosala Vira Ramanatha Devar, Jeyangondanatha temple, Mannargudi, Tanjore).


"Hoysala race, sprung from Yadu" (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-VII, page-72).


"In the lineage of Yadu (the legendary) king sala, sasakapura acquired the named Hoysala" (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-VII, Page-73).


Therefore, the great "Hoysala Kings" (Kshatriyas) emerged from the line of "Yadu", "Yadava". "Vanni Kula" (Agni Kula).


The great "Hoysalas Kings" descedants are "Vijayanagara Kings" (Sangama, Chaluva, Tuluva) :-


"In the Yadu's race, Samgama ; his sons Harihara and Bukka" (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-VII, Page-80).


"Vijaya Nagara lamp pillar inscription of the time of Harihara-II (the son of Bukka-I, of the Yadava race)." (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-VII, Page-80).


"In the race of the Yadavas, Samgama ; his son Vira-Bhukka or Bhukka (Bukka-I) married Gauri ; their son Harihara (II)." (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-III, Page-120), (Nallur Plates of Vira Pratapa Harihara (Harihara-II).


The "Devula Palli Plates of Immadi-Nrisimha" (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-VII, Page-78) states that :-

"It would appear also that Nrisimharaya was probably related to the kings of the first dynasty of karnata empire, since both claimed to belong to the Yadava line of the lunar race of Kshatriyas. Saluva Nrisimharaya, father of Immadi-Nrisimha, the donor of the present grant, and the second by Nrisimharaya's general 'Narsenaque' or 'Narasimha', the founder of the Tuluva dynasty".

(Cont'd)

N. Murali Naicker said...

The "Krishnapuram Plates of Sadasivaraya" (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-IX, No.52, page-340) states that :-

(Verse-1) : Invokes Sambhu

(Verse-2) : The boar incarnation of Vishnu

(Verse-4&5) : Trace the geneology of the family from the Moon

(Verse-6&7) : In his (i.e. Turvasu's) line was born the husband of Devaki. King Timma, as famous among the Tuluvas and krishna was among the Yadus.

(Verse-28&30) : King Sadasivaraya, who was like the santana tree on the hill of devas, was duly installed on the throne that was the jewel of the prosperous town, Sri-Vidyanagari, by king Rama, his sister's husband, the protector of the goddess sri of the great kingdom of Karnata, who was an ornament to all Kshatriyas, who was endowed with valour, nobility and kindness and by the chief ministers.


"In the temple of simhachalam in the vizagapatnam district there is an inscription dated in the saka year 1350 (1428 A.D). It records that Telunguraya, son of Samburaya of Kannada-Desa". There is another inscription of Telungaraya, also dated in the saka year 1350 (1428 A.D), at Santaravuru in the Bapatla taluka of the Kistna District, in which the king is described as the Mahamandalesvara Misaraganda Kathari Saluva Telunguraya." (Epigraphia Indica, Vol-VII, No.8, page-76)


In the Thiruvannamalai, Aavur inscription, the king Rajanarayana Sambuvarayar-III mentioned that, the king Kampana Udaiyar as his "Maithunanar" (மைத்துனனார் ). Therefore, it is evident from the 1379 A.D. inscription that, Sambuvarayar Kings and Vijayanagar Kings (Sangama) were relatives. They are "Velirs" (Kshatriyas). (A.R.E. No.306 of 1919), (23rd year, 1379 A.D).


In the "Unjini Copper Plate" of 1463 A.D, says that, the "Saluva King Mallikarjuna Deva Maharayar" came from the "Fire-pit" (Yaka-kunda) of "Sambu Maha Muni". Even in the "Villiyanoor Copper Plate", the same king referred as "Raja Vanniyan".

"சம்புமா முனியார் யாகத்தில் அவதரித்தானவர்
அய்யன் சூரர் (திரு) புவனம் தெக்ஷனாதிபதிக்கு
விசையர் மகா வீரப்பிறதாபர் வன்னிய வேட கண்டர்
அக்கினிப் புரவி யுள்ளவர் மகா பிறாக்கிறம சாலியறானவர்" (Avanam - 19, Jul-2008, Page-104), (Mallikarjunarayar, 1463 A.D).


From the valid points above discussed, it is proved beyond doubt that, the "Vannia Kula Kshatriyas" (Agni Kula Kshatriyas) came from the "Fire-pit" to rule the earth. Since, Purananuru (song-201) also clearly says with out any doubt that the "Velir" (Kshatriyas) generated from the "Fire-pit". The sangam age "Purananuru" date back to 2nd century B.C (2200 years). The "Purananuru" (song-201) further says about the "Velir Irungovel" as 49th Generation. If you calculate a generation gap as 25 years then (49 x 25 = 1225) it works out to 1200 years (approx). Then the "Dwaraka Age" is (2200 + 1200 = 3400) is 3400 years (approx). Lets us take to 3000 years. Therefore, the existence of "Agni Kula Kshatriyas" (Vannia Kula Kshatriyas) in Southern India dates back to 10th century B.C.

N. Murali Naicker said...

The Great "Velirs"
=================


The vel refers to the "Velvi" (Yagam), (i.e) "Sacrificial Fire", "Agni-Kunda", "Yaga-Kunda", "Anala-Kunda". Therefore, the velirs (Kshatriyas) were referred in the history that, they were brought out from the "Fire-Pit" (Yaga-Kunda) to rule the earth and to establish Dharmam. This theory is to be taken for the origin of Kshatriyas and also a theory that, Kshatriyas came from the shoulders of Lord Brahma.


In the "Purananuru" (Hymn-201), the sangam age (2nd century B.C) poet "Kabilar" clearly says that, the velirs (Kshatriyas) were brought out from the "Fire-Pit" of sage "Vadapal Thava Muni", whom has been identified as "Sambu Maha Muni" by the eminent scholar Tamil Tatha U.V Saminatha Iyer with the help of Tamil Literatures such as "Vishwapurana Saram" and the "Theiviga Ula" of Irrattai Pulavar. The "Irrattai Pulavar", who had contributed "Theiviga Ula" , "Ekkabaranathar Ula" etc. were patronised by the "Sambuvarayar Kings". The "Sambuvarayar Kings", who hails from the velir clans had ruled "Oyma Nadu" in the sangam age and also during the early imperial cholas period as Chieftains/Feudatories.


The "Sambuvarayar Kings" clearly mentioned in the imperial cholas inscriptions that. they were from the line of "Sambu-Kulam", which means, they came from the "Fire-Pit" of sage "Sambu Maha Muni". The 12th century poet, Kambar in one of his great work "Silai Ezhupathu" clearly says about the "Vanniyas" (Agni Kulas) came from the "Fire-Pit" of sage "Sambu Maha Muni" and ruled the earth to establish Dharma. Vanniya Puranam and several copper plates pertaining to "Vanniya history" says the similar origin. Obviously, "Vanniyas" are from the line of "Agni" is the reality. In Sanskrit "Vanni" means "Fire". Both are synonyms.


In the "Purananuru" (hymns-201&202), the sangam age poet "Kabilar" (Belongs to Bramin community) says that, the velir king (Kshatriya) "Irungovel" was the 49th generation king and their ancestors were the rulers of "Dwaraka". The poet "Kabilar" also describes velir "Irungovel" as "Pulikadi Mall" (A valour hero, who killed a Tiger). The eminent scholars in the opinion that, Irungovel belongs to "Hoysala Clan", since, the velir king Irungovel described as "Pulikadi Mall" by sangam age poet "Kabilar".

(Cont'd.......)

N. Murali Naicker said...

The "Hoysala Dynasty" founder "Sala" is said to be "Killed a Tiger" in many "Kannada Inscriptions". Even many ikons of "Sala killing a tiger" have been placed in the Hoysala temples as their symbol. The "Hoysala" rulers hails from "Yadu-Kulam" (from the line of Moon, Lunar Race, Yadava, Kshatriya). They named their capital (Halibedu) as "Dwaraka", which resembles their ancestors ancient capital "Dwaraka", which was immersed in to the sea nearby the provinces of the present Gujarat. The ancient Dwaraka rulers hails from the line of "Yadu-Kulam" (Yadavas, Kshatriyas) and their clans had spread throughout India such as "Chalukyas", "Kalachuris", "Hoysalas", "Rashtrakutas", "Vilandai Vel", "Kodumbalur Irukkuvel" etc. The "Kulottunga Chola-I", referred in the 12th century "Kulottunga Cholan Ula" as he belongs to the clan of "Duvarapathi Velir" (முகில்வண்ணன் பொன்துவரை இந்து மரபில்) and also "Thee Kon" (Fire Race King), (தீக்கோன் நிகழ்நிலா அன்று நிருப குல துங்கன்). The noted poet "Kambar" of 12th century A.D. in his work "Silai Ezhupathu" also says, the Kulottunga Chola-I as "Vanni Kulottungar" (கலையா வன்னி குலோத்துங்கர்) and his son as "Agni Kulatharasar Vikramar" (அக்கினி குலத்தரச விக்ரமர் ). The great Hoysala king "Vira Vallala Deva-III" referred as "Vanni Kulathinil Varum Manna" (வன்னி குலத்தினில் வரு மன்னா) and "Anal Kulathon" (அனல் குலத்தோன்) in the the authentic work "Arunachala Puranam" of 14th century A.D. The Velir "Irungovel" (Pulikadimal) of Sangam Age is considered as the ancestors of "Hoysalas".


The "Hoysalas" mother tongue is "Kannadiga" (The old Kannada inscriptions is almost in the form of Tamil script only). The "Kodumbalur Irukkuvel" also refer them as "Irungolan", which is evident from the name "Parantaka Irungolan", one of the Chieftains of imperial cholas. According to the Muvarkoil Inscription, Bhuti Vikrama Kesari built Kodumbalur temple with three shrines. A fragmentary "Kannada Record" found at Kodumbalur mentions "Vikramakesarisvara" (A.R.E. No.140 of 1907) thus confirming the Muvarkoil Sanskrit record which also says that they are from "Yadu Vamsa" and "Yadava". The Sanskrit record also mentions one of the Kodumbalur Irukkuvel kings name as "Aditya Varma", which denotes them as "Kshatriyas" (Varma).


Irungovel was one of the Velir Chiefs of the sangam age, who ruled from his capital city "Pidavur" was defeated by Karikala Chola. His capital city "Pidavur" has been identified with the modern "Pudaiyur" in Kattumannar Kudi Taluk. Imperial cholas inscriptions refers a territory called "Irungolappadi", which comprising parts of Udaiyarpalayam, Kattumannarkudi, Tittakudi, Virudachalam taluks on both the banks of the vellar river (The river vellar obtained its name from the Velir as "Vel Aar" (வேலாறு). The "Irungolappadi" was ruled by the "Irungolar Chieftains" during imperial cholas times. The "Vilandai Kuttram" was one of the nadu which existed in the "Irungolappadi Region" was ruled by "Vilandai Vel", a chief of Vilandai in the sangam period.

(Cont'd......)

N. Murali Naicker said...

During the period of Vikrama Chola in the year 1130 A.D, a Velir Chieftain named "Palli Kuttan Madurantakan alias Irungola Raman" referred in the Pennadam inscription (A.R.E. No.259 of 1928-29, Tittakudi Taluk). He belongs to "Vanniya Caste". The "Erumbur" (situated on the northern bank of river Vellar) inscription mentions a Velir Chieftain named "Irungolan Gunavan Aparajitan" as a feudatory to Parantaka Chola-I. The Kattumannar Kudi taluk, Srimushnam inscription refers a Velir Chieftain named "Irungolar Kon alias Narayanan Pugalaippavar Kandan" during the period of Sundara Chola. In Virudhachalam, during the period of Uttama Chola, a Velir Chieftain named "Irungolar Naranan Pirutivipatiyar" had ruled as feudatory to imperial cholas. Similarly during the period of Raja Raja Chola-I, the Velir Chieftains named "Irungolar Prithivipathi Amani Mallar" and "Irungolarkkonar Amani Mallan Sundara Cholar" were referred in the Virudhachalam inscriptions. During the period of Rajadhiraja Chola-I (1050 A.D), a Velir Chieftain named "Visayapurattu Palli Amani Mallan Palli Kondan alias Maravattumalai" mentioned in Virudhachalam inscription (A.R.E No.55 of 1918). The "Irungolar Chieftains" had the close matrimonial relationship with imperial cholas.


The Tittakudi taluk, Vasistapuram inscription of Kulottunga Chola-III, mentions "Kulothunga Choliyar, daughter of Navalur Irungolar and wife of Tundarayan Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyar of Tenur". A line of Chieftains, who ruled the Ariyalur region during the period of imperial cholas were called as "Tundarayar". Around 20 inscriptions mentioned about them, they are "Palli" (Vanniya) by caste. Tittakudi taluk, Tiruvattaturai inscription pertaining to Virarajendra Chola (1067 A.D) mentions, a Chieftain named "Palli Kuttan Pakkan alias Jayankonda Chola Tundanattalvan". The "Irungolar" and "Tundarayar" Chieftains had matrimonial relationship with each other.


The great "Surutiman Community", who were also called "Irungolar" during the period of imperial cholas. A record of 1218 A.D of Kulothunga Chola-III in Uttattur mentions that, the "Surutimans" were created from the "Fire-Pit" (Yaga-Kundam) by the sage Kasyapa to wage war against the Asuras. Obviously, the great "Surutiman Community" is "Kshatriya Community". They served as Chieftains during imperial cholas period. The "Irungolar Chieftain" named "Surutiman Nayan Soran alias Irungolan" referred in the Uttattur inscription of Raja Raja Chola-III (1233 A.D). In the same uttattur during the period of Jata Varman Sundara Pandiyan (1308 A.D), the "Irungolar Chieftains" named "Nerkulam Kani Udaiya Surutiman Mattiyandan alias Soran Irungolan" and "Surutiman Devan Poril Mikaman alias Irungolan" were referred.

(Cont'd.......)

N. Murali Naicker said...

The great "Nattamans" were created from the "Fire-Pit" (Yaga-Kunda) of "Guha Munivar". The inscription record of 1227 A.D in valikandapuram mentions Nattamakkal as one among the castes of Idangai 98 kalanai and as the leaders of Chitrameli Periya Nadu (alias) Yadava Kula. This shows, the "Nattamans" were in possession of "Fertile Agricultural Nadus". The term "Yadava-Kula" refers them as "Kshatriyas". The "Vettavalam Chieftains (Vanadiraya Pandariyar)" belongs to "Nattaman Udaiyar Community". The later Malayaman Chieftains refer them as "Bargava Gotra" and suffixed their names with "Varman" which shows them as "Kshatriyas". The later Malayaman Chieftains referred in more than 36 inscriptions as "Vanniyan", "Vanniya Nayan", "Vanniyanar", "Yadava Viman", "Palli", "Palli Cheriyadi Nambi Kovalaperaraiyan" (Bramins living areas were also called as Cheris during chola period). The inscription evidences says that, the "Kadavarayas" (Vanniyas) had the matrimonial relationship with "Malayamans" proves both belongs to "Vanniyas". The "Udaiyar Palayam Chieftains" refer them as "Bargava Gotram in Ganganooja Family that took its origin from Vanniya Kulam (the family of the God of Fire)". The "Siriya Krishnapuram" copper plate published by my guru "Thiru. Natana Kasinathan Sir", clearly says that, the "Vanniyas, Surutiman and Nattaman" are from the same clan, they are "Velirs" (Kshatriyas).


The above mentioned points clearly shows, the "Vanniyas", "Surutiman" and "Nattaman" (Agni Race) are "Kshatriyas". They all were brought out from the "Fire-Pit" (Yaka-Kunda) to rule the earth and to establish Dharmam.


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N. Murali Naicker said...

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