jahau sva-tanvā śravaṇīya-sat-kathaḥ
abhadra-hetuḥ kalir anvavartata
Though all the features are present, the month is Margashira, not Pushya. Amavasya ended by sunrise.
Note two major changes: (1) the month is Pushya as given in the inscription, (2) the planetary positons are not the same as those for Chitra Paksha / Lahiri ayanamsa. Nearly a month-long difference is there between for the changed ayanamsa for the same Panchanga features.
Aryabhata again on Kali Yuga date.
Evidence of Kali Yuga date in Saptarishi cycle.
The Saptarishi cycle comes into reckoning in the discussion on Kali Yuga date for two reasons. According to all available versions, the Sapta Rishi cycle started 25 years after the start of Kali Yuga. This offers excellent cross- reference to validate the Kali Yuga date. The second reason can be traced to a specific verse in Brihat Samhita on the location of the Saptarishis in the time scale of Yudhishtira Shaka. The verse says,
(Word for word translation of this verse)
आसन् मघासु मुनयः शासति पृथ्वीं युधिष्ठिरे नृपतौ।
षड्-द्विक-पञ्च-द्वि (२५२६) युतः शककालस्तस्य राज्ञस्य॥
आसन्= āsan = Halting, stopping, abiding, staying, sitting (third person plural present imperfect class 2 parasmaipada √as )
मघासु = maghāsu = in the lunar mansion Maghā (feminine locative plural stem: magha)SB 12.2.31
मुनयः = munayas = the sages (masculine nominative, vocative plural stem: muni)
शासति = śāsati -= to command, to control (third person plural present present class 2 parasmaipada √śās)
पृथ्वीं = pruthvim = earth (Accusative)
युधिष्ठिरे = in Yudhihsthira (singular masculine locative)
नृपतौ = king (singular masculine locative)
षड्-द्विक-पञ्च-द्वि = 2526
युतः = yutas = Binding, fastening, attaching, going (masculine nominative singular past passive participle stem: yuta)
शककालस्तस्य = shaka kālas tasya – his shaka kaala,
Tasya = about this (SB 10.89.2), at him (SB 11.23.9), by him (SB 1.9.17, SB 9.14.42, SB 10.70.24)
राज्ञस्य = by (of) the king (singular masculine Genitive)
“The earth was controlled by the king Yudhishthira in his shaka kala of 2526 (years) (when) the Saptarṣis (muni) were in Maghā (star).”
2526 years of the Yudhishthira Shaka is 575 BCE. (3101-2526) At this year the Saptarishis were in Magha.
Since the Saptarishis Era started 25 years after the start of Kali Yuga, it had started in 3076 BCE. From 3076 BCE to 575 BCE, the Saptarishis had travelled for 2501 years. We must see if we are able to get the beginning of the Saptarishis era from this.
There are two views given in the Puranas on the duration of this Era. One view is that that the Saptarishis stay for 100 years in a star, by which they complete one round around the zodiac of 27 stars in 2700 years. A second view found in Brahmanda Purana is that the Saptarishis take 3030 human years to complete one round. In this context it gives the year of the Dhruva as 3 times this duration, i.e. 9090 human years.
Taking up the first view (2700 years), the Saptarishis were yet complete one Era by 199 years at the time they were in Magha in the year 575 BCE. (2700 – 2501) In the second case the Saptarishis were lagging by 529 years to complete an era at the time they were in Magha (3030-2501).
Since the Saptarishis travel in anti-clockwise direction in the northern sky, let me go backward in the reverse from Magha for 199 years (for 2700 year cycle) and 529 (for 3030 year cycle). Since the Saptarishis move an average of 100 years per star in the 2700 year cycle, they would have completed / started the Era in Pushya star, by moving through two stars in 199 years.
In the second case of 3030 year cycle with an average of 112 years per star, they could have crossed 4.7 stars, i.e. would be in the 5th star in the reverse. This places the beginning of the Era in Mrigashirsha!
Saptarishi Era at Kali year 25.
Of the two probabilities (Pushya and Mrigashirsha) on the beginning of the Era, Mrigashirsha is backed up by cross evidences.
The star Mrigashirsha signifies ‘path’, the Mārga of the Universe. Conceptually this concurs well with the idea of Sapta Rishi that they lead mankind in the Universe. Among the months, Krishna identified himself with Mrigashirsha. Culturally celebration of Full Moon in Mrigashirsha in Kashmir where Saptarishi Era was followed in olden days adds credence to the beginning of this cycle at Mrigashirshain the solar month of Margashira.
This also solves the mystery around “Agrahāyana” which means “first movement” (Agra = first, ayana = movement) occurring at Mrigashirsha. The ‘first movement’ was about the beginning of the cycle of Saptarishi Yuga at Full Moon in Mrigashira. This puts at naught the view that Agrahāyana could refer to the equinox. The oscillating equinox cannot go beyond Krittika 1st pada. Agrahāyana being the other name for the month of Margashira, its importance as the first one is known from the Saptarishi Era. The yearly celebration of the Full Moon in Margashira in Kashmir marks the day as the New Year day and the month as the first month in the Saptarishi Calendar.
The Era starting with the Saptarishis at the star Mrigashirsha in Kali year 25 offers yet another evidence of the inviolability of Kali Yuga date at 3101 BCE.