Wednesday, January 23, 2013

Asians (Indians & Chinese) shared same genetic origin with Native Americans.


A study showing connection between Asians and Native Americans, but not related to Europeans has been published. The news report on that is reproduced at the end of this article.

My research based on Indian Epics particularly Mahabharata and the Tamil Sangam sources is exactly this. Four major races existed in the South of equator and localized in Sundaland. They were Daityas (today's Chinese), Danavas (Europeans), Manavas (Indians and Australoids)and Asuras (Negroids).

The popular Epic characters Prahladha and his descendants Virochana and Bali were Daityas. The Mandra or Meru with which churning was done referred to the unstable Sunda plate. The Chinese language name as Mandarain was a result of this Mandara connection in Sundaland, from where the early Chinese (Daityas) migrated northward to the present day China, when Sundaland was submerged. This migration must have happened gradually for a longer period of more than 10,000 years until 7,000 years ago when the present sea level was obtained.

A group of Manavas left even before the Ice age started around 17,000 years ago, perhaps in the aftermath of a fiery disturbance (as per Hindu puranas) which could have been a volcanic eruption. The story of Daksha and his famous yajna and the anger of Shiva in not offering him oblations are metaphoric narrations of increasing population and low death rate. Absence of oblations to Shiva means that there were fewer deaths. As per Puranic narration, Shiva destroys the subjects of Daksha by fire. Daksha was spared and he came to have the face of a ram. This signifies 

(1) Destruction by fire in which the survivors called as Manu escaped and moved to Arabian seas where they settled in the extended landscape west of Western ghats. Such an extension was there 14,000 years ago, thanks to low sea level.  It was lost to the Arabian sea after that. About 7000 years ago some of the extended land was restored by Parasurama. Today all these extensions are completely under sea water.

(2)The stellar based Hindu astrology - astronomy was in place even at the time of Daksha. At the end of destruction by fire, he became ram-faced. This means the starting of Time from Aries started then. The starting point of Aries as the mid -point of oscillation of the axis must have happened then.  

As per Tamil sources, the next destruction was by water and it happened in 3 periods, one before 11,500 years ago, the 2nd one 7000 years ago and the 3rd  one 3500 years ago.

At the time of 1st deluge, Indian population split as North and South Indian. Manu and others who were living in the extended land west of Western ghats had to relocate as sea levels rose and these lands were submerged. A major relocation happened through Saraswathi river into North India. They were the Dravidas (Dravida is one who has given up fighting or kshatriya-hood) as they ran away from the pre-historic war or fiery destruction that happened at the end of Daksha's yajna). The extended land off Western Ghats from Maharashtra to Kerala was inhabited by them during Ice age. The colonial Census records show that there was a Dravida land was on the border of Aryan kavu pass! That means Sabhari mala was in Dravida land.

The restored regions of Kerala still continue to exist while almost the entire stretch upto Maharashtra is no longer available. These lands were lost into sea about 10,000 years ago and parts of them restored about 7000 years ago by Parasurama. It must be noted here that the Viswakarma school of architecture was well developed at this time and it had expertise in retrieving submerged lands. Dwaraka- restoration was done by Viswakarmas at the behest of Krishna. Restoration / construction of a land-path was done across the Ram Setu by Viswakarma's descendant during Rama's times.  

We must remember that this group of people who subsequently entered North India via Saraswathy shared the same genetic origin with the Manavas who were still living in islands scattered in the India Ocean then. The early Tamils belonged to this region.

The recent genetic report of Indians sharing the gene pool of Australians must be viewed in this backdrop. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2262843/Migrants-India-settled-Australia-4-000-years-ago-Captain-Cooks-arrival-took-dingos-them.html

This study says that Indians went to Australia 4000 years ago and suggested that the sudden rise of plant processing, stone tool technologies and microliths that appeared in Australia around that time were due to the introduction of the same by Indians at that time. The foreign researchers split their heads on how the Indians could have gone over there crossing a long route across the Indian Ocean.

BUT WE from TAMILNADU having the knowledge of TAMIL'S PAST through SANGAM TEXTS know better how this was possible. Indians did not go from today's boundary of South India. At that time (4000 years BP) the Tamils (Manavas who shared the same origin and culture with Manu and his men who subsequently entered North India) was in existence in the Indian Ocean! From Adiyaarkku nallar's commentary on Silappadhikaram, we know that 7 X 7 = 49 lands of old Pandyan kingdom were submerged in the 3rd deluge that happened 3500 years! The survivors from that deluge scattered on all directions, one group having gone to Australia, another to Polyneisian islands, some to Indonesia and yet another had landed in South India along with Pandyan king and his
தொல் குடி aayars / cattle breeders (Kali-th-thogai). From Polynesia, one group had gone to South American Andes and landed in Titicaca and started Inca civilization.


The terrible shattering effect that this deluge had on the ancient Tamil people of the 49 lands would have erased many past memories of that ancient culture. But survival modes must have definitely remained at some degree. The skills of labour must have helped them manage their lives and continue thereafter. That is why we see stone works, Lapita pottery and plant processing and mat making suddenly appearing in all the places mentioned above around 3500 to 4000 years ago. All these have resemblance to Indian / Tamil's culture. With this genetic study now proving a mix of Indians with Australians, we get an important proof of our theory which we pick up from Sangam texts and olden Tamil Commentators.

Now let's come back to the present study that says that Asians, Chinese and Native Americans shared a common genetic origin. After the 2nd deluge 7000 years ago, most of  Sundaland was submerged and people have moved in 2 directions. The Daityas (Chinese) moved inland northward. The danavas who were also in the same Sundaland, moved to India via Arabian Sea and settled in NW India for some time.  They further moved to Europe between 7000 to 5000 years ago. It was around 5000 years ago that Mayan architecture replaced Viswakarma architecture in ancient India. It was Krishna who patronized Mayan and made him build the city and Maya sabha for the Pandavas. From then onwards the Mayan architecture spread throughout India.

The Danavas differ from daityas in the maternal side. That is, as per Hindu sources, Danu (female progenitor of Danavas) and Diti (female progenitor of Daityas) were sisters. But the Manavas (Indians) too shared the maternal gene as their female progenitor was Aditi, who was a sister of Danu and Diti, but their paternal progenitor gene (Manu) also was totally different from Daityas and danavas.

At this time, the Indian Ocean - bound settlements continued and were completely shattered in the 3rd deluge that took place 3500 years ago. It was at that time migrations towards the American continents across the Pacific had happened. The Anishinabhe people seem to be connected with Tamils than anyone else. The peculiar sound of 'zha' () in Tamil language is seen as zhi and shi sounds in Chinese and 'wi' zhi' sounds in Native Americans. It must be noted that Rig Vedas (which were given by the new settlers of Manu in the Saraswathi basin) use the Tamil pronunciation of zha. The first Rig vedic mantra has a word "agnimILE" where the La must be pronounced as Tamil Zha! Similarly 'shi' sound in Rig Vedas interchanges with 'zhi' (ழி) of Tamil.

Paramacharya of Kanchi had spoken on this and said that quite a few words in Rig Vedas are pronounced as Tamil Zha. Similarly the Talavakara shaka of sama veda used 'zha' sound. One justification (which Paramacharya also says) is that this was due to the influence of Pradesha Bhasha (local language). But I don't agree with this suggestion. From the then existing numerous Vedas, Ved Vyasa picked out some and compiled them into 4 parts. He taught each part (each Veda) to each of his 4 disciples namely,  Paila, Vaisampayana, Jaimini and Sumantu. These 4 disciples were instructed by Vyasa to go to the 4 directions of Bharat and teach them there. As such Jaimini came to South India and taught Samaveda.

Why was South India chosen for Samaveda is a question. If Samaveda had already contained 'zha' sounds, then only it is logical to expect Vyasa to have ordained Jaimini to teach it to South Indian Tamils, as they were by then well established in Tamil grammar. It must not be assumed that Vedas were taught in South India for the first time by Jaimini. Earlier Ravana of Lanka was known to be an expert in Sama Ghana. All the Vedas had existed before hand – even at the time of Vaivasvatha Manu as he had the sages do the yajna to beget a male child as his first child had a confused gender. Perhaps Pumsavana ritual for gender change into male in the 3rd month of the fetus was introduced then. (We are going out of the topic). What I want to emphasize here is that the special Tamil sound of 'zha' was olden and was present in Vedic chants. The Tamils retained it in sama Veda while the first sages who entered saraswathi basin retained that sound in Rig Vedic compositions due to their previous association with the culture that spoke Tamil when they were in the Indian ocean settlements.
(Kanchi Paramacharya's discourse on this 'zha' sound in Vedas can be read here:-

http://www.kamakoti.org/tamil/Kurall87.htm
 
இப்போது நான் ஒரு புது விஷயம் சொன்னேன். தமிழில் மாத்திரம் இருப்பதாக நினைக்கப்படும் இந்த '' வேதத்திலும் இருக்கிறது என்று. ஸாமவேதத்தில் ஜைமினி சாகை என்று ஒன்று இருக்கிறது. அதைத் தலவகார சாகை என்றும் சொல்வார்கள். மற்ற வேதங்களில் மற்ற சாகைகளில் '' அல்லது '' வாக இருப்பதை, தலவகார சாகையில் ''மாதிரிதான் ஒலிக்க வேண்டும். முறைப்படி தலவகார சாகையில் அத்யயனம் பண்ணினவர்கள் இப்படித்தான் '' காரமாகச் சொல்கிறார்கள். அதைப் பூர்ணமான '' என்று வேண்டுமானால் சொல்ல முடியாமல் இருக்கலாம். ஆனால் உள்ளூர (அந்தர்பாவமாக) அது '' சப்தந்தான் என்பதில் ஸந்தேஹமில்லை.
 
ரிக்வேதத்திலேயே கூட இப்படி ''காரம் சில இடங்களில் ஒலிக்கிறதுண்டு. ஸாதாரணமாக ''வும் ''வும் ஒன்றுக்கொன்று மாறிவரும் என்றபடி, யஜுர் வேதத்தில் ''காரம் வருமிடங்களில், ரிக் வேதத்தில் '' காரம் வருவதுண்டு. வேதத்தில் முதல் மந்திரத்தில் முதல் வார்த்தை 'அக்னிமீடே' என்பது. 'அக்னிமீடே' என்பது இப்போது அநுஷ்டானத்திலே மெஜாரிட்டியாக இருக்கிற யஜுர்வேதப் பாடம்தான். ரிக்வேதத்தில், இது 'அக்னிமீளே' என்றுதான் இருக்கிறது. இங்கே 'ளே' என்பதை 'ழே' மாதிரிச் சொல்ல வேண்டும்.

  யஜுர்வேதத்திலே வருவதும், ரொம்பப் பிரஸித்தியோடு இருப்பதுமான ஸ்ரீ ருத்ரத்தில், 'மீடுஷ்டமாய' என்று ஒரு இடத்தில் வருகிறது. இந்த வார்த்தை ரிக்வேதத்திலும் உண்டு. அங்கே "மீடு"வில் வரும் 'டு' என்பது '' காரமாக இல்லாமல், '' காரம் அந்தர்பாவமாகத் தொனிக்கிற சப்தமாகவே இருக்கிறது.
 
பொதுவாக, ரிக் வேதத்தில் ''வாக இருப்பது, யஜுர் வேதத்தில் ''வாகவும், தலவகார ஸாமவேதத்தில் ''வாகவும் இருப்பதாகச் சொல்லலாம். இப்போது இந்த ஒவ்வொரு வேதமும் நிறைய அநுஷ்டானத்திலுள்ள பிரதேசங்களை எடுத்துக் கொண்டு, அந்தப் பிரதேச பாஷைகளின் விசேஷத்தைப் பார்க்கலாம். )

Coming to the topic of this post, the wide presence of shi, xi  and zhi in Chinese language might be due to an olden language – may be we can call it as proto-Tamil – which was spoken by all the people in the South of the Equator 10,000 years ago. Going by the Rig Vedic sound of shi – zhi (Tamil) blending or inter change, I wonder if the xi, shi, and zhi of Chinese were from Tamil zhi. If so this presupposes prevalence of proto Tamil throughout Sundaland as it was nearer to the Pandyan settlements in the Indian Ocean. Moreover the Puranic characters of Daityas such as Prahladha located in Sundaland makes it a Vedic society whose local / spoken language was Tamil.

By 11,500 years ago refined Tamil made so by grammar was in place in Tamil lands. The first sangam started then. All those who had left this core region of Indian Ocean settlements before that time, continued to use 'zha' sound. Manu and his men used 'Kodum Tamil" – stunted Tamil which was spoken before Tamil was refined by Sangam age. Hanuman spoke it to Sita as Manushya Bhssha.

Coming to the connection between Chinese, Asians and Native Americans:- Within the North American Continent I see 3 sets of people - the Hopi coming from people who crossed Berring strait at the time of Ice age. The Mayans must be distinct from them as they are Danavas - sharing European descent. The rest of the people - particularly those around the Great lakes came from Sundaland and shared a common culture with Vedic society which was what early Tamils were.

*******************

From

DNA shows ancient humans related to Asians and Native Americans

Published: Wednesday, Jan 23, 2013, 17:00 IST
Place: Washington, DC | Agency: ANI
Early DNA has revealed that humans living some 40,000 years ago in an area near Beijing were likely related to many present-day Asians and Native Americans.

An international team of researchers including Svante Paabo and Qiaomei Fu of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, sequenced nuclear and mitochondrial DNA that had been extracted from the leg of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave near Beijing, China.

Analyses of this individual's DNA showed that the Tianyuan human shared a common origin with the ancestors of many present-day Asians and Native Americans.

In addition, the researchers found that the proportion of Neanderthal and Denisovan-DNA in this early modern human is not higher than in people living in this region nowadays.

Humans with morphology similar to present-day humans appear in the fossil record across Eurasia between 40,000 and 50,000 years ago.

The genetic relationships between these early modern humans and present-day human populations had not yet been established. Qiaomei Fu, Matthias Meyer and colleagues of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, extracted nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from a 40,000 year old leg bone found in 2003 at the Tianyuan Cave site located outside Beijing.

For their study the researchers were using new techniques that can identify ancient genetic material from an archaeological find even when large quantities of DNA from soil bacteria are present.
The researchers then reconstructed a genetic profile of the leg's owner.

"This individual lived during an important evolutionary transition when early modern humans, who shared certain features with earlier forms such as Neanderthals, were replacing Neanderthals and Denisovans, who later became extinct," study leader Svante Paabo said.

The genetic profile reveals that this early modern human was related to the ancestors of many present-day Asians and Native Americans but had already diverged genetically from the ancestors of present-day Europeans.

In addition, the Tianyuan individual did not carry a larger proportion of Neanderthal or Denisovan DNA than present-day people in the region.

"More analyses of additional early modern humans across Eurasia will further refine our understanding of when and how modern humans spread across Europe and Asia," Svante Paabo added.

7 comments:

jayasree said...

http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.in/2013/01/guest-blogger-jayasree-asians-indians.html

Narayanan said...

Dear Madam,

Your article on shared origins of Asians and native Americans has thrown new light on human history.

I have a clarification on your following statement.
"Paramacharya of Kanchi had spoken on this and said that quite a few words in Rig Vedas are pronounced as Tamil Zha. Similarly the Talavakara shaka of sama veda used 'zha' sound. One justification (which Paramacharya also says) is that this was due to the influence of Pradesha Bhasha (local language). But I don't agree with this suggestion."

As I understand the above passage, you seems to be saying Kanchi Mahaperiyava also is of the view that the usage of Zha in Talavakara shaka of sama veda is due to the influence of local tamizh language. But actually Kanchi seer says just the opposite, that is, the usage of Zha in tamizh language (as also some special pronunciations in other local languages) is due to the influence of the vedas practised in that place. The Shiksha vidhi of the veda shakas practised in each region has entered into the local language of that place is the view of Kanchi seer. The link which you have given for reference also has, in the very next article, a detailed discourse on this topic titled -- "whether vedas has influenced the unique pronunciations of regional languages or the regional languages have influenced the pronunctions of vedas ? ".

jayasree said...

Yes, I agree. But my larger focus is on the universality of Tamil as the language of all Indians. I mean this in the light of 'zha' sound in Rig Vedas which were given by early rishis who entered saraswathy along with Manu. I am trying to impress on the notion that they spoke Tamil even before they entered North India and gave Rig Vedas.

Since you can read Tamil, read my comments in my Tamil blog where I discussed this issue expressed by Periyavaa. Scroll down to one Mr Rajan's comment after which my explanation starts.

http://thamizhan-thiravidana.blogspot.in/2011/05/54.html

jayasree said...

For those who will be missing my comments in Frontiers of Anthropology blog (link given in the first comment), I am reproducing them here:-

My research presumes (based on Tamil literary sources of 2000 years ago)that small scattered islands were there in the Indian Ocean, one set, on the submerged mountain range that continues from Western ghats in South India upto Madagascar (where Malidves and Laksha dweep are still seen above the sea) and another set, of islands that were visible above the sea level until 7000 years ago on the 90 degree east ridge on which Andaman and Nicobar are still above the sea level today.

The Tamil texts mention that there were 49 such settlements in this region which must have provided a link between East Africa and Sundaland during the Out of Africa migrations. As per Tamil sources, the last time all traces of these places were gone was before 3500 years before present. That period coincided with Indian gene pool mixing with Australians and new settlements springing up in Polynesian islands.

According to my research, the routes are

(1) From east Africa to these islands in Indian Ocean to Sundaland (75000 + years ago)

(2)From these islands to Indian sub continent from as early as 60,000 years ago.

(3) From Sundaland to North west India through Arabian sea corridor around 7000 years ago when Sundaland obtained the present contours. The danavas took this route to Europe.

(4) From Sundaland to Altai mountains via Myanmar and vice versa at two times in the past (based on narration in Mahabharata). The last reverse migration occurred from Altai mountains to Sundaland during the peak of Sundaland, which was 25,000 years before present.
The present mankind and its civilization started form this period.

jayasree said...

On genetic connection between cats and dogs from Indonesia / Indian ocean to Australia, I think I can give you some inputs on dogs and 2 plants from the Hindu Epic, Mahabharata. This narration from Mahabharata is metaphorical about migration of people from North to South following climatic changes that resulted in North reeling under darkness and South getting more of Sun's heat.

From the 5th paragraph onwards in the following link of Mahabharata 13-93, you will get all clues in how the shift happened. A story is narrated from that paragraph onwards.

http://ancientvoice.wikidot.com/src-mbh-13:section-93

The narration starts with Sivi or Saivya who was dead and whose body the 7 sages (of Ursa Major) were preparing to eat. Sivi is the sanskrit term for Typha angustifolia, which grows in certain Northern latitudes only. The entire plant is edible. But a time came when this plant no longer grew due to climatic changes. The narration of sages preparing to eat the dead Sivi shows that times were so bad that people were left nothing but the dead and dried Sivi plants to eat. I locate the place of this plant in the narration at Altai mountains where Denisovan gene was discovered from a fragment of a bone. Let me justify this in the course of this write-up.

The sages were offered kines which they refused, as they didn't want to subsist on flesh. They started moving in search of food and met a man with his dog on their way. This man was called as 'Sunasakha' which means 'friend of slaughterer'. This man and his dog looked well fed. From the name Suna sakha and his hunger-free state, it is deduced that many people died due to hunger and this is said euphemistically that the friend of slaughterer looked well fed. His dog also looked well fed, meaning to say that the dogs had scavenged on the dead people.

The story goes further until the sages reached a Lotus-pond. There, they had to tell the etymological meaning of their names to Yatudhani (demoness of night). The etymological meaning of the names of 7 sages, the consort Arundhati, their servants Ganda (raised grass land for grazing) and Pasusakha (friend of kines)- all had a connected meaning of starting life and family and getting cattle wealth. The sages were spared by the demoness as she could not understand the etymological meaning of their names and she is subsequently killed by Sunasakha (friend of the slaughterer).

The sages collected the lotus stalks for eating, but these stalks were stolen by Sunasakha. Ultimately it turned out that Suna sakha was Vasava (Indra, the lord of people) who ordained that people started with their routine life. With that Indra and the 7 sages (of Ursa Major) retired to their abodes.

(cont'd)

jayasree said...

The derivations from this narration is that 2 plants mark the 2 limits of human settlements. The 2 plants namely Sivi (Typha angustifolia) and lotus are complete foods. Even in times of starvation, people had managed to subsist on these 2 plants. Lotus is entirely consumed by Chinese, Thais etc - in other words by people who live in the location close to Sundaland. Taking this as a cue, I am locating the region of Typha angustifolia to the north of China because that makes an easy route for people to have migrated northward or southward during times of distress. The northern most location for Typha angustifolia in this stretch is Altai Mountains! Since we have evidence of Denisovan genes connected to Australian aborigines in this region (Altai), I deduce that a former migration had occurred in this corridor - from Australia to Sundaland to China to Altai.

The narration of Mahabharata is about southward migration. The narration centered around the 7 sages (sapta rishis who are responsible for human birth and growth as per Hindu texts) and the etymology makes it known that the narrator is coming to tell about the gradual shift of survivors from North to South with shift in the axis of earth as seen in the shift of pole star connected to Ursa Major. The probable destination at that time must have been the now submerged Sundaland! The latitudinal location of Sundaland makes it conducive for Lotus to grow there.

The mention of dog in this narration makes an interesting reading. Usually dog is mentioned at several places as friend of man in the Hindu texts. In the final days of Pandavas, the eldest Pandava was accompanied with a dog which was described as Yama (lord of death)! In this narration too, dog looked hefty and well fed - perhaps due to availability of dead material in the wake of dying life forms. This dog is introduced in the narration right from the beginning the sages started moving out in search of food. This makes me wonder whether I must just take it as a symbolic Yama in the form of dog (signifying death all through the way) or the real dogs that once lived in the North (Altai mountains) and migrated to Sundaland and subsequently to Australia along with the people. The genetic study of Altai and Siberian dogs with the Indonesian, Australian and Indian dogs might give more answers.

Mai Fiori said...

Hi!

I just wanted to clarify something. It is not the Chinese to whom the Indian's genetic origin is directly tied to but the Vietnamese. This is because, based upon DNA sequencing, the Vietnamese population is the older, more diverse population which gave rise to the Chinese population.

Please see this link for more information.
http://www.genetics.org/content/130/1/139.full.pdf