The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, present on chromosome 6 is one of the most extensively studied regions of the human genome. The most striking feature of the HLA system is the extreme polymorphism found at some of its loci. This characteristic of the HLA system has made it an invaluable tool for population genetics analyses. Different populations exhibit characteristic allele and haplotype frequencies, which provide information about their history, migration patterns, evolution, genetics, disease susceptibility and resistance. In this study the genetic polymorphism of seven Pakistani ethnic groups was investigated at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB and DQB1 loci using polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). The groups included in this study are the Baloch, Brahui, Sindhi and Parsi from the south and the Burusho, Kalash and Pathan from the north of Pakistan. The allele frequencies, three-locus haplotype frequencies for HLA-A, -C, -B and HLA-A, -B, -DRBl and two locus haplotype frequencies for HLA-A, -B, HLA-B, -C, HLA-B, -DRBl and HLA-DRBl, -DQBl along with linkage disequilibrium, relative linkage disequilibrium and their significance (p-value as determined by -l-test) were calculated. Neighbor joining trees based on allele frequencies were constructed and correspondence analysis was carried out. Variation in the allele and haplotype distribution between the seven Pakistani ethnic groups was observed. A phylogenetic tree and correspondence analysis based on HLA- A, -B, -C, -DRBl and -DQBl allele frequencies revealed the Kalash and Parsi populations to be distinct from each other and the remaining Pakistani populations.
August 26, 2013
THE BJP Election Campaign Committee's latest decision to target 272+ with the help of Muslim votes in the 2014 polls is not the illusory phantasm it may seem to the layman... For, behind that dream is a reality that's been long hidden from the public at large. Behind that dream is the RSS' Muslim wing, Muslim Rashtriya Manch (MRM) which has been engaging Muslims for more than the past 10 years. It is the only Muslim organisation related to the RSS.with which he has been associated since 1959.