Tuesday, April 1, 2008

Rama in Treta yuga – Yuga is defined on the basis of dharma and not the number of years.

It is generally thought that the Yuga classification is
on the basis of chatur yugas which run into lakhs of years.

It is on this basis, Ramayana is believed to have occurred about 17 lakh years ago.

But there is a distinction between yuga classification on the basis of ‘Div”
or stars that revolve in the universe
and the classification based on the human level of existence.

The yuga classification on the basis of divya yuga (sun and stars) is used
to express a particular event in the macrocosmic time scale,
starting from the beginning of creation
which occurred 10 to the power of 17 times the solar years.
(Bhaskara has given this number which is equal to Para-ardha = half of Brahma’s Parama ayuL
of 100 deva / divya years)

A year in this 100 year duration is made of 365 days of devas.
Each of this day is made of 2 kalpas.

A kalpa =a day of Brahma = a night of Brahma = 14 manvanthras of 71 chathur maha yugas each = 20 rounds of sun around the galactic centre of roughly 220 million years of duration = ½ the duration of Sun’s estimated life )

Since a day is made up of a day--kalpa and a night-kalpa,
a day of Brahma is equivalent to the life of sun with its brilliance for 10+ billion years +
a period of anthakaara (darkness) without sun for the same duration of 10+ billion years.
This yuga classification runs into millions and billions of years which is suitable
to express the life span of stars (nakshatras which are considered to be devas ) (1)

This classification is primarily used in the context of dik, desa and kaala.
Dik (direction), desa (country) and kaala (time)
are the most important factors
in any work.

When someone wants say or convey something,
he / she will say the place and time from where he / she is speaking or communicating.
This is about desa.

Dik is also important as desa,
because the division of earth into north and south in terms of ayana
makes a difference to the other two, namely, desa and kaala.

Dik is important for another reason too
as it is relative to desa and time (night or day).
So any religious rite that has to be done, is carried out
first by stating the place of performance in terms of dik, desa and kaala.

Kaala is not just about day or night at a place.
It is about that time in the month (solar / lunar month),
in the paksha,
in the rithu,
in the ayana,
in the 60 years rotation (prabhavaadhi) of the sun,
in the divya yuga,
in the manvanthra,
in the kalpa and
in the context of Para (parama ayuL of Brahma).

This line of progression from the lowest unit to the highest unit
is reversed in practice and is said from the highest to the lowest, for,
only then it will make sense!
(It is interesting to note that this kind of deduction from
the large scale to small scale
or the unit level is followed in Russia in their postal address!)

It is like how it is said that I am the great grand child of so and so,
grand child of so and so and child of so and so.
We start from the higher unit or that which forms the Whole
and deduce from that,
our relationship or position at the bottom level.
It is from the Whole, the location of the Part is known.

Any religious rite starts with a sankalpa or vow in this way
by identifying oneself
with dik, desa and kaala.

Thus the Divya yuga classification had been vogue for enunciating Kala-parimaaNa.
Whereas, the yuga classification at human level is known by Yuga dharma only.

Even in Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna says that he will be born again and again
in the yugas,
for establishing dharma.
(dharma samsthaapanarthaaya sambhavaami yugE yugE)

At human level, day and nights, or years and yugas
do not have relevance
they are about some works related to them
As such, yuga is known by its yuga dharma –
about the acts and works that have to be done.

Nowhere in Ramayana or Mahabharatha or any purana,
do we come across a statement
that such and such a yuga got ended on such and such a date or day
because the stipulated number of a particular yuga got over then.

On the contrary the ushering in of a yuga is known
by spotting certain symptoms
in terms of dharma.

Some instances on Yuga dharma as basis of yuga.

The discussion about the beginning or the end of yuga
is found in the Itihasas,
but on the basis of the dharma of the respective yuga.
For instance the ushering in of Kali yuga came to be known
and talked about in Mahabharatha
by the way dharma in fighting the war was trespassed.

As long as Krishna was alive, Kali could not enter,
because Krishna was to have lived in dwapara yuga
when the yuga dharma of Dwapara yuga was in vogue.
Only after the departure of Krishna, Kali yuga was started. (2)

But even then it could not come to stay,
because the King Pareekshit requested Kali purusha
not to enter his kingdom as long as he was there.

As long as he was alive, Kali was able to stay only in specific locations
(as permitted by King Pareekshit)
where the four sinful activities of gambling, drinking, prostitution and animal slaughter
[dyûtam, pânam, striyah, sûnâ] were taking place.
Upon further request by Kali purusha,
it was granted that he could dwell in the place where there is gold,
as gold by passion is the fifth sin bringing falsity, intoxication, lust and enmity. (3)

This shows that yuga starts or ends only by its identification
with the dharma
it comes to exhibit.

We come to hear of the yuga definition
on the basis of yuga dharma in Ramayana too.(4)

Yuga is known by the dharma followed by people.

Satya yuga is known as Satya, because Truth reigned then.
It is also known as Kruta yuga,
because Krutya means doing things or duties
that ought to be done.

Since all those people of Kruta yuga
were doing only those works or duties
that were to be done by them
and were doing only in the ways in which they were to be done,
that time period came to be known as Kruta yuga.

In that yuga,
only one varna, namely the Brahmins
(varna is based on the swa-bhava or innate quality)
were engaged in tapas.
Others were doing their regular duties (nithya – naimitthila karmas)
No one was found wanting in knowledge and
whatever they wanted, they got instantly gratified.
In this yuga, dharma was perfect (pari-poorNam)

In Tretha yuga, both Brahmins and Kshathriyas were entitled to do tapas.
There was thus equality between these two varnas.
Others were doing their duties.

Tretha is derived from “thrayee” which means the three types of yajnas,
namely, Soma yajna (of 7 types), Havir yajna (of 7 types) and Bhaga yajna (of 7 types)

The Kshathriyas and Brahmins took part in or conducted these yajnas.
The others were doing their duties as prescribed.

But some violation of dhrma happens in Tretha yuga.
Because in Tretha yuga, adharma spreads ¼ of its influence.

The adharma in Tretha yuga was in the form of rivalries among kings.

The first symptom of this is seen in the reign of Rama’s ancestor, Asita,
when rivalries were first reported.
Asita however defeated the detractors and banished them as mlecchas.
They were settled in the middle east,
which later came to be known as the cradle of civilization of the modern era –
as the yuga dharma of Kali yuga in the cosmic scale (Kali of Chathur maha yuga)
is that what is banished in the previous yugas will get glorified in Kali yuga
(and vice versa).

In Tretha yuga, the first symptom of violation of that yuga dharma was untimely death.
When adharma was there, the first casualty was the life span.

This means there will be unnatural, and untimely death, calamities and sorrow.

In Dwapara yuga, adharma spreads 2/4 th of its influence,
and that is why it is dwapra (dwi).
In this yuga, Brahmins, Kshathriyas and Vaisyas get equal status in doing tapas.

In Kali yuga, only ¼ th dharma is there, as adharma spreads ¾ of its influence.
In this yuga,
all the four vanas get equal status in doing tapas or in religious activities.

This is how it is explained by sage Narada in urttara khanda of Valmiki Ramayana.

This explanation is given by Narada to Rama in the context of
why a young boy died before 14 years (alpaayuL) in Tretha yuga.
Such an incident could not happen in Tretha yuga
unless the yuga dharma was flouted.

It was found that a person belonging to the 4th varna
was doing tapasya which was a dharma only in kali yuga
and which was against the yuga dharma of Tretha yuga.

That person was eliminated by Rama as it was his duty to see that
Tretha yuga dharma was maintained.(the dead boy regained life after this)
This is something unacceptable in today’s world.

But we must know how Rama lived.
His yuga dharma was such that
he did not even accept his wife after securing her release from Ravana.

He banished her later, after knowing the mind of his subjects.
We can say that Rama could have as well relinquished his crown
and chosen to live with his wife who was pregnant then.

The same predicament, if it has happened in this Kali yuga,
would have been dealt with in this way only.
We know of a British monarch in waiting,
who gave up his right to the throne to live with his lady-love.

Such an incident is indicative of Kali yuga dharma
but can not happen in Tretha yuga.

Rama could not leave the throne for the sake of his wife.
Instead he and his wife had to do the needful
so that the Throne receives the first born as a blemish-less king.
That was the dharma then.

Yes another dharma of Treta yuga is that,
the king must be the first born of his father.
It is on this basis only,
Bharatha refused to accept the throne after Rama’s return
and in spite of Rama’s request. (5)

That is also why Sibi,
the ancestor of Rama is not mentioned in the chronicles of Ikshvaku dynasty (6).
It is known from the copper plates of Thirvaalangaadu,
that the Cholas were the descendants of Sibi..

The copper plates reveal the Chola genealogy,
according which, the ancestry was the same for Rama and Cholas until Mandhatha
(mentioned as Mandhathri in the copper plates).
But the lineage differs from then onwards.

It is known from Valmiki Ramayana (6)
That Mandhatha’s son Susandhi had two sons
of whom the first one, Dhruva sandhi took over the reigns
and the lineage continues from him.

There is no mention of the lineage of the second son, Prasenajit.
In the copper plates of Cholas,
the lineage continues with Muchkundha and others
whose descendant was Sibi.

Though there is no mention of Sibi in the Ikshvaku chronicle
described by Vasishta at the time of Rama’s wedding,
Rama mentions Sibi as his ancestor elsewhere in Ramayana.
This is true as he belonged to the Ikshvaku family only.
But he was not of the direct lineage –
that is, in the lineage of the first born,
to be qualified to ascend the throne in Tretha yuga.

But Sibi's ancestors seemed to have got connected with other families
which will be discussed later in the 'No dravidian divide' posts.

This rule about the first born male,
also lends an explanation or rationale for the craving of Dhasharatha for a male child,
though there are indications in Ramayana
that he was not childless
and was already blessed with a female child, called Shantha.

The craving for a male child as the first born for even commoners

can be traced to this rule of Tretha yuga

when yajnas and manthra- based activities were at their peak.

The first son bequeathed the tradition of the family then.

Thus it can be seen that only the first born was given importance
for succeeding the throne.

When so much importance was attached to the King
there is no wonder that Rama stuck to the rule-book of the king.
Rama could not abdicate his responsibility to the throne
for the sake of his wife.

He had to sacrifice his personal life for the sake of the throne.
When he had to be ruthless - even with reference to his beloved wife,
he could not act against the yuga dharma
which did not allow the 3rd or 4th varnas to do tapasya.

But this particular episode (of killing the 4th varna doing tapas)
has become the whipping stuff
to accuse Hinduism itself.

We accept this accusation as the yuga dharma of Kali!!

Thus we find that yuga is based on yuga dharma.

Reference :-
(1) Purusha sookhtham which says that Purusha has the roopam or appearance of nakshathras / stars – “nakshathraaNi roopam”
(2) Srimad Bhagavatha (11-7-2), Vishnu purana (4th and 20th chapters) and Matsya purana (adhyaya 271 – slokas 51 & 52) say that Kali yuga entered immediately after Krishna shuffled off his mortal coils.
(3) Srimad bhagavatham – canto 1.
(4) Utthara khandam of Valmiki Ramayana – chapter 13 & 14
(5) Yuddha khandam -131
(6) Balakhanda of Valmiki Ramayana – sarga - 70


appalam vadaam said...

Thank you again Jayashree mami - I've become a regular to your posts...

Two questions on this

1. If there is steady deterioration, then can it not be that there is a steady improvement in perception and awareness and dharma - overall like a sinusoidal wave of Best, better, good, bad, bad, good, better, best! And, that is cyclic right - what goes up comes down and what comes down goes up. Somehow, the deluge and subsequent Krutha yuga after the deluge does not seem cyclic. I don't know so am asking this...

2. I think you mentioned somewhere that Jupiter has so far been in a favourable position for India due to which Dharma was maintained - but you said that cannot be said for future generations. Could you elaborate on that please?

Jayasree Saranathan said...

Thanks for being a regular to my blog, Ms Vasundhara.


It is cyclical. After deluge, it starts afresh. That is how it is told in texts. The end of the Ice age happened some 14 to 15 thousand years ago. This corresponds to 0 degree Libra. From that time onwards, until 0 zero degree Aries, there is ascending phase. The last part was Kaliyuga which was followed by Krutha yuga of the descending phase. This is the current phase, according to me. There is knowledge explosion now – but of the material kind where morality takes a back seat. This is because of the descending phase. The krutha yuga of the ascending phase was a contrast to this where there was knowledge explosion of vedic type buttressed with high standards of morality.


I didn’t say that Jupiter was good in INDEPENDENT India.
It (Dharma) was the ruling thing in the past. But with Indian Independence, the nation and its culture had changed. Jupiter is the 8th lord and the 22nd Drekkana lord posited in Mruthu degree in the 6th house of the Bhava chart of Indian Independence. This shows the death of Dharma. We can see the fast deterioration – today only adharma and filthy things are glorified; no one raises a whimper against unethical ways.

When Jupiter dasa runs for India, (that starts in 2050) India will see utter disregard for anything Right or dharmic.

If you think that I have sounded like what you understood from my articles, please show me those passages. I have to check if I had unintentionally said something different.

appalam vadaam said...

Thanks again for the reply.

The reference to Jupiter is from this post -


"From astrological point of view, I can say that Jupiter has not been adverse in most lives of Hindus all these generations. But I can not say the same for the upcoming generations. The exposure is there due to rise in inter-marriages which have no sanction in Sanatana dharma."

Although the context was marriages - it was interesting to note that Jupiter has not been adverse to most of Hindus....and you said it would not be so in future. If India's capital changes to some other place now - or if (I can dream right? :) ), there is again a merger into Sindh, E. Bengal, NW Frontier for Bharath, is there any hope for revival?

Sometimes, you know, I feel, Arjuna's dilemma was valid - everything is planned anyways - even realization and moksha - what is a mere human effort worth anything at all?!! :)

Jayasree Saranathan said...

When I say that I can not say the same for future, I mean that Jupiter will be adverse.
It is already manifest in the Indian Independence chart. I have explained how.

Amalgam of the countries is not a solution. A rebirth kind of renewal - if done at an auspicious muhurtha may perhaps change things for better.

Your last para - yes, its my realization that Free will is an illusion. There is no freewill in this programmed Universe / Life.

But thinking so, you must not keep quiet -is what krishna says. Be duty bound, do things as required in a situation. If we remain in non-action, things / life can not move. We have to move things - but what we move is not as we think -but as per His will. We are like high powered car, which can not run on its own. A driver is needed to ignite and drive it.
We = the car,
the driver= god.
That is ultimate realisation.

This is a huge topic to explain. I will take it up when I have time.

Jayasree Saranathan said...

If we remain in non-action, things / life can not move. We have to move things - but what we move is not as we think -but as per His will.<<<

This is what we mean 'entrusting everything to God, do your karma - do what is required in a given moment." Sarvam Krishnarpanamasthu!

We are of course the doers.
Whatever we do is as per His Will.
Have this realization.
So dont get bogged down to results and ifs and buts.

Unknown said...


I have a question regarding the connection between the saptha rishi mandal based yuga cycle and the human year based yuga cycle. If they were different then why are the dates of different yugas (as per the saptha rishi mandal ) being stated in terms of human years. Could you clarify this ?

Jayasree Saranathan said...

Dear Mr Pradeep.

The basic unit is solar year which is the duration taken by the earth to make one revolution around the sun. It is equal to 1 human year. We start the journey at a point in space and end up there. That is one year. Sanatana system has many ways of expressing this year based on the purpose for which it is applied.

For example, this can be expressed as sidreal (star as the point of reference)or saura (360 degrees) or savana (from sun rise to the next sun rise at that point). In each of these, the utility is different though the same sun and the revolution is taken as the basis of computation.

Similarly, for cosmic and mundane purposes, different scales are used, but the basic unit is the same solar year.

In Human yugas such as Saptha rishi yuga, it runs into few 1000s of years. We can not express Deva years and Pitru years in saptha rishi yuga whereas they can be easily understandable in large time scales such as Maha yugas (Cosmic years of Sun's journey).
1 Deva year = 360 human years.
1 pitru year = 30 human years.
We can understand the length of these years if expressed in human years only. But their application can not come in Human yuga of saptha rishi chakra. They are expressed in Cosmic yugas.

Hope I conveyed.

Jayasree Saranathan said...

@ Pradeep,

If you can read Tamil, please go through this article of mine in my Tamil blog on Dravia. Human yuga classification is done on many ways which can be known from Mahabharatha.


surya said...

1. "ice age" mentioned anywhere in puranas?? if so plz let me know with what name they called it.

2. why it is made such a difficult task to find out the roots or truth about past. its killing to define, redefine, redefine, redefine...this game of GOD is for fun of Him and for Pain of Us. No wonder He comes forward to save when cried.


Jayasree Saranathan said...

@ Surya

(1)Ice Age is the period of lull after a period of activity. It is night- kalpa as per Hindu texts.
At the level of human cycle of events, one round is 28,800 years. You can count from Mt Toba (tripura symbolism) of my recent post)

Mt Toba period was night Kalpa period with less human activity.
After that one cycle of activity had come. It was followed by a lull caused by Ice age and after that the present cycle of day-kalpa is on since 12,000 BP.

(2)Yes, one has to seek the inner wisdom. Quoting from the opening sentence in my recent post:-
"The Hindu wisdom is always encapsulated so that it is preserved against mutilation and also makes itself revealed only to the seeker."

Unknown said...


Somehowe i find your blog on internet and i love reding it. Thanks. So far i didnt know much about small yugas etc. But i think it is imported that when we speak about small yugas or shorter times and their impact on human life, it is imported to always know that big cosemic yugas are basic in determing the nature ot time and activities. So kali yuga started 3100BC is determing the nature for 432.000 of years. My question is, how big is impact of small cycls on humans lifes?

Jayasree Saranathan said...

The big cycle called Maha yugas are about sun's movement around the galactic centre. It is mentioned in the sankalpa mantras of any Vedic kriya ( the mantras that tell the space and time from Cosmic level downwards to the time at the local level of the man who commits to do that Vedic kriya)

A reading of that mantra would tell you how it is about the time at macro and galactic level. It is as follows.

".... dviteeya parardhe - in the 2nd half of Brhama's life

Svetavaraha kalpe - in the kalpa of Sveta-Varaha

Vaivaswatha manvantare - in the reining period of the current manu Vaivaswatha

Ashta Vimsati tame - in the 28th mahayuga of the current manavantara

Kaliyuge - in this kali yuga

Prathame Padhe - in the first quarter of this yuga

Jamboodveepe - this denotes the place where the ritual is performed. India was known as Jambudveepa

Bharata Varshe, Bharata Kande - in the land of Bharat

Sakhabde Mero, Dakshine Parsve - to the South of the Meru mountain

Asmin Varthamane Vyavaharike - in the current period now reigning

Prabhavadi Shasti Samvatsaranam Madya - among the cycle of 60 years starting from Prabhava

Nama Samvatsare - the name of the year in the 60 year Hindu calendar

....Ayane - Dakshinayane (Aadi to Marghazi) or Uttarayane (Thai to Aani)

....Ritou - denotes the 6 seasons or Ritus - Vasantha, Greeshma, Varsha, Sharadh, Hemantha and Shishira

....Mase - one of the 12 tamil months

....Pakshe - either Shukla Paksham (day after Amavasya till and including Pournami) or Krishna Paksham (day after Pournami till and including Amavasya)

....Subha Thithou - one of the 15 days between Pournami and Amavasya (Prathama, Dvithiya, Trithiya, Chaturthi, Panchami, Shasti, Saptami, Ashtami, Navami, Dasami, Ekadasi, Dwadashi, Trayodasi, Chaturdasi, Pournami or Amavasya

....Vasara Yuktayam - one of the days of the week (Bhanu, Soma, Bhowma, Soumya, Guru, Brugu and Sthira)

....Nakshatra Yuktayam - the day's star or Nakshatram.


The smaller Yugas are Dharma yugas - or the span that tell the level and nature of Dharma that would prevail. It is applicable to human life. They are variously explained and used in the past. The 5 year yuga was the basic unit of Jupiter cycle used in Vedanga jyothisha for ritual purpose. (Coligy calender also shows a similar yuga.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coligny_calendar)
It had its year beginning in Aquarius when Jupiter makes heliacal rising after its debility in Capricorn.

Sage Markandeya suggested 12,000 year long yuga (12,000 + 12,000 = 24,000 years. Yuga would have 2 arms, an ascending and a descending. therefore the 24,000 year cycle yuga of Markandeya

You can read them all here:


Ganesan R said...

Dear Madam,


Dasarathan having a girl child Santha is a new information to me. Can you pl. give the source of this information? Is there any other reference to Santha in Ramayana?

Thanking you and waiting for your reply,

R. Ganesan

Jayasree Saranathan said...

Dear Mr Ganesan,

The information that Dasaratha gave his daughter Santa in adoption to his friend Romapada is found in Vishnu Purana chapter 4-18.

Let me quote them from http://ancientvoice.wikidot.com/src-vp:vp4-18

"The son of Anga was Para; his son was Divaratha; his son was Dharmaratha; his son was Chitraratha; his son was Romapada, also called Dasaratha, to whom, being childless, Dasaratha, the son of Aja, gave his daughter santa to be adopted."

Dasaratha, the son of Aja is none other than Dasaratha, the father of Rama.

In Valmiki Ramayana too, there comes a veiled reference to this adoption in chapter 1-11-3 as told by Sanatkumara and repeated by Sumantra to Dasharatha himself.

अङ्गराजेन सख्यं च तस्य राज्ञो भविष्यति |
कन्या चास्य महाभागा शांता नाम भविष्यति || १-११-३

""King Dasharatha will befriend the king of Anga and the king of Anga will beget a fortunate girl named Shanta."

What could this mean, other than Dasharatha giving his daughter in adoption to his friend.

Ganesan R said...

Dear Madam,


Thanks for your reply.

Is there any reference to Santha's mother anywhere?

I found the explanation for 120 years which I was thinking whenever I read about Vimshottari dasa. I am still clueless why sun is alloted 6 years, Mars 7 years, Moon 10 years and son on. Hope you can explain.

I also read somewhere in your blog is Harivarsha is present day China. It will be useful if you can tell which countries are referred to in Ramayana? From the map I can find in your blog, I am unable to get this exact point.

Thanking you,

R. Ganesan

Ganesan R said...

Dear Madam,


Thanks for your reply.

If Shantha is the daughter of King Dasaratha, who was her mother?

I also read in one of your blogs that Vishnupura mentioned in earlier scriptures is present day China. Can you kindly give the names of earlier countries and their corresponding region now? From the map in your blog, I am unable to understand this information.

How many present countries may have existed in our Ramayana days?

Expecting your reply,

R. Ganesan

Jayasree Saranathan said...

Dear Mr Ganesan,

On your queries,
1. I have not come across any reference to the mother of Shanta.

2. There is an explanation for the number of years allotted for each planet in the Dasa system. I am yet to educate myself on that. If I come across the details I will share it here or as a blog.

3.Chinese names appear in early period itself when Vaivasvata Manu established his foot hold in North India. The reference to Chinese region comes in Mahabharata description which I have shared in that blog. Apart from these I have not concentrated on this part. Most of China was not habitable then. So any reference to China does not mean entire China as we know today. Chinese were known as Daityas and of demonic qualities. Hiranya Kashipu, Prahladha were Daityas only. So we looked at them as Daityas and not as Chinese. They occupied south east Asia and not north and central China which were very cold once. I am yet to analyse the names of those places. Because of Prahladha connection, it could have come to be called as Hari varsha

4.The countries in the east mentioned in Ramayana have been traced fully in my article on Udayagiri. You can access that article here: http://jayasreesaranathan.blogspot.com/2017/09/tracing-route-to-udayagiri-mountain-of.html

The list in V Ramayana doesn't talk about Hari varsha, perhaps because Prahladha lived much before - 12000 years before present according to me. That was before India came to be occupied by Vaivasvatha Manu. It may be confusing to read this reply. Check out my blogs on Vaivasvatha Manu. May be the last part of last article in Munda series can give you some insights. http://jayasreesaranathan.blogspot.com/2014/04/mundas-fused-culture-of-tamil-and.html

5. Ramayana gives the list of places in all the 4 directions. I have written on east and west in Udayagiri and Astagiri articles. Asta giri - west - here https://jayasreesaranathan.blogspot.com/2017/10/mt-atlas-was-asta-giri-mountain-of.html

On south I have written in my Tamil blog http://thamizhan-thiravidana.blogspot.com/2011/06/57-1.html
Read the next 2 blogs too numbered 58 and 59 after reading the above link.

Also read 33, 34, 35 numbered article in that blog wherein I have partially deciphered the countries of the north. http://thamizhan-thiravidana.blogspot.com/2011/01/33.html

Explore that Tamil blog where you will get lot of new information, not yet written by me in English.

Ganesan R said...

Dear Madam.


I thank you for your links.

I will also like to have links in your blog to countries that are in the other half of sun sojourn after the sun sets in Mt. Atlas as found in Surya Siddhanta.

Thanking you,

R. Ganesan