1) Abul Fazl (late sixteeth century)
Abul Fazl, the author of Akbar Nama and Ain-i-Akbari is an
eminent writer of the Moghul age who describes Ayodhya as the
residential place (banga) of Sri Ram Chandra who during the Treta
age was the embodiment of both the spiritual sovereign supremacy
as well as the mundane kingly office. Abul Fazl also testifies
that Awadh (Ayodhya) was esteemed as one of the holiest places of
antiquity. He reports that Ram-Navami festival, marking the
birthday of Rama continues to be celebrated in a big way.
2) Safiha-i Chahal Nasaih Bahadur Shahi, written by the daughter
of Bahadur Shah Alamgir during the early 18th century.
Out of the above Chahal Nasaih ("Forty Advices"), twenty-five
instructions were copied and incorporated in the manuscript
entitled Nasihat-i Bist-o-Panjam Az Chahal Nisaih Bahadur Shahi
in 1816 AD, which is the oldest known account of the destruction
of Ram Janmabhoomi for construction of the Babri Mosque, and its
author is none other than Aurangzeb's grand daughter.
Mirza Jan, the author of Hadiqa-i-Shahda, 1856, Lucknow, has
reproduced the above text in Persian on pp.4-7 of his book. The
text runs as follows:
"... the mosques built on the basis of the king's orders (ba
farman-i Badshahi) have not been exempted from the offering of
the namaz and the reading of the Khutba [therein]. The places of
worship of the Hindus situated at Mathura, Banaras and Awadh,
etc., in which the Hindus (kufar) have great faith - the place of
the birthplace of Kanhaiya, the place of Rasoi Sita, the place of
Hanuman, who, according to the Hindus, was seated by Ram Chandra
over there after the conquest of Lanka - were all demolished for
the strength of Islam, and at all these places mosques have been
constructed. These mosques have not been exempted from juma and
jamiat (Friday prayers). Rather it is obligatory that no idol
worship should be performed over there and the sound of the conch
shell should not reach the ear of the Muslims ..."
3) Hadiqa-i-Shahada by Mirza Jan (1856), pages 4-7.
The author was an eye-witness and an active participant in the
jihad led by Amir Ali Amethawi during Wazid Ali Shah's rule in
1855 for recapture of Hanumangarhi from the Hindus. His book was
ready just after the failure of the jihad due to stout Hindu
resistance, and was published the following year (1856) in
Lucknow. In Chapter IX of his book, entitled Wazid Ali Shah Aur
Unka Ahd ("Wazid Ali Ahah and His Regime"), we find his account
of construction of the Babri mosque.
Mirza Jan who claims to have gone through various old sources
says in his own account as follows:
"The past Sultans encouraged the propagation and glorification of
Islam and crushed the forces of the unbelievers (kufar), the
Hindus. Similarly, Faizabad and Awadh(Ayodhya) were also purged
of this mean practice [of kufr]. This [Awadh] was a great
worshipping centre and the capital of [the kingdom of] Rama's
father. Where there was a large temple, a big mosque was
constructed and where there was a small mandaf, there a small
kanati masjid was constructed. The temple of Janmasthan was the
original birthplace (masqat) of Ram, adjacent to which is Sita Ki
Rasoi, Sita being the name of his wife. Hence at that site, a
lofty (sarbaland) mosque has been built by Babar Badshah under
the guidance of Musa Ashikan... Tha t mosque is till date
popularly known as Sita Ki Rasoi..."
4) Fasana-i Ibrat by the Urdu novelist Mirza Rajab Ali Beg Surur.
Dr. Zaki Kakorawi has appended an excerpt from this book by Surur
(1787-1867) in his work. The excerpt reads as follows :
"During the reign of Babar Badshah, a magnificent mosque was
constructed in Awadh at a place which is associated with Sita ki
Rasoi. This was the Babari mosque. As during this period the
Hindus could not dare to offer any resistance, the mosque was
constructed under the benign guidance of Saiyed Mir Ashikan. Its
date of construction could be reckoned from [the words]
Khair-Baqi. And in the Ram Darbar, a mosque was constructed by
Fidai Khan, the subedar."
5) Zia-i Akhtar by Haji Muhammed Hasan (Lucknow 1878), p.38-39.
The author states :
"The mosque which had been built by Saiyid Musa Ashikan in 923 AH
in compliance with the order of Zahiruddin Badshah, Delhi, after
demolishing the private apartments (mahal sarai) of Raja Ram
Chander and the kitchen of Sita, as well as the second mosque
built by Muiuddin Aurangzeb, Alamgir Badshah, [in fact] both
these mosques have developed cracks at various places because of
the ageing character. Both these mosques have been gradually
mitigated by the Bairagis and this very fact accounts for the
riot. The Hindus have great hatred for the Muslims..."
6) Gumgashte Halat-i Ajudhya Awadh ("Forgotten Events of
Ayodhya"), i.e. Tarikh-i Parnia Madina Alwaliya (in Persian)
(Lucknow 1885), by Maulvi Abdul Karim.
The author, who was then the imam of the Babri Masjid, while
giving a description of the dargah of Hazrat Shah Jamal Gojjri
"To the east of this dargah is mahalla Akbarpur, whose second
name is also Kot Raja Ram Chander Ji. In this Kot, there were few
burjs [towery big halls]. Towards the side of the western burj,
there was the house of birthplace (makan-i paidaish) and the
kitchen (bawarchi khana) of the above-mentioned Raja. And now,
this premises is known as Janmasthan and Rasoi Sita Ji. After the
demolition and mitigation of these houses [viz. Janmasthan and
Rasoi Sita Ji], Babar Badshah got a magnificent mosque
7) Tarikh-i Awadh ("History of Ayodhya") by Alama Muhammad
Najamulghani Khan Rampuri (1909).
Dr. Zaki Kakorawi has brought out an abridged edition of this
book. An excerpt from vol.II (pp.570-575) of this edition runs as
"Babar built a magnificent mosque at the spot where the temple of
Janmasthan of Ramchandra was situated in Ayodhya, under the
patronage of Saiyid Ashikan, and Sita ki Rasoi is situated
adjacent to it. The date of construction of the mosque is Khair
Baqi (923 AH). Till date, it is known as Sita ki Rasoi. By its
side stands that temple. It is said that at the time of the
conquest of Islam there were still three temples, viz.
Janmasthan, which was the birthplace of Ram Chanderji, Swargadwar
alias Ram Darbar, and the Treta ka Thakur. Babar built the mosque
after having demolished Janmasthan."
8) Hindustan Islami Ahad Mein ("India is under Islamic rule") by
Maulana Hakim Sayid Abdul Hai.
The book contained a chapter on "The Mosques of Hindusthan"
(Hindustan ki Masjidein), giving at least six instances of the
construction of the mosques on the very sites of the Hindu
temples demolished by the Indian Muslim rulers during the
12th-17th centuries. As regards Babri Masjid, he writes :
"This mosque was constructed by Babar at Ajodhya which the Hindus
call the birthplace of Ram Chanderji. There is a famous story
about his wife Sita. It is said that Sita had a temple here in
which she lived and cooked for her husband. On that very site
Babar constructed this mosque..."