Wednesday, April 24, 2013

Rainfall prediction – Part 6 (Stars and planets)

The previous parts can be read here:-

In the scheme of ancient wisdom of rainfall astrology, stars also play a role. The zodiac is divided into 27 stars each with equal length of 13 degrees and 20 minutes. Each of this distance is supposed to signify certain attributes. For example the star Krittika is supposed to be a fiery star and is denoted by Agni as its Lord. In observational astronomy, the time Sun passes through this star is indeed a fiery or the hottest time for India. Similarly the star Swati is signified as a Windy star. In reality the days that Moon transits this star are found to be windy. Like stars, the 12 signs also signify specific attributes. That is how the fiery signs, watery signs etc have been assigned in astrology. 

Star –planet combination

Our ancient seers have observed stars and planets and each aspect of Nature around us and have framed them as simple rules to refer for prediction. In this way they have formed “Sapta Nadi chakra” by grouping the stars into seven parts. The transit of planets in each of this causes different effects on rainfall. This chakra must be one of the oldest rules of astrology because this takes into account 28 stars and not the currently held 27 stars. The extra star “Abhijit” is noted for a distance of 4 degrees 14 minutes, between 276 -40 degrees and 280-54 degrees in the sign of Capricorn. 

The planet – star combination makes or mars rainfall. 
This chakra can be easily interpreted in the following way.

Vayu Nadi
Kri, Vishaka,  Anusha, Bharani

No rains
Vayu Nadi
Ro, Swati, Jyesh, Aswini

Dahana Nadi
Mri, Chith, Moola, Revathy

Dry weather
Sowmya Nadi
Aru,  Hastha, P-dhada, U-Bhadra

Less rains
Nirjala Nadi
Punar,  U.Phal, U-shada, P-Bhadra
But no rains
Jala Nadi
Pushya, P.Phal, Abhijit, Shatabhishak
Amirtha Nadi
Aslesha, Magha, Sravana, Dhanishta



Starting from Krittika, the stars are arranged in a systematic way. The transit of certain planets in these stars signifies rainfall or other conditions. They have been noted in the far right column. When Moon transits the Amritha Nadi stars, there will be good rains. If Moon is joined with Jupiter and Venus in Amritha Nadi and Jala nadi, the rains will be plentiful. If Sun and Mars join the stars of Dahana Nadi, there will be excessive heat and no rainfall. In this way, the prediction must be done.

Stars and Moon

The transit of Moon across specific stars is noted for advanced prediction of rainfall in the rainy season. Most important stars are Rohini and Swati. Rohini is noted in the lunar month of Ashada and Swati is noted in the lunar months of Jyeshta and Ashada. (The lunar month begins from the 1st day after New Moon / Amavasya and ends on the next New Moon.). These observations starting from Jyeshta month help in deducing whether it will rain or not in the upcoming days. 

Rohini Yoga.

The transit of Moon across Rohini in the dark half of the lunar month of Jyeshta (June – July) is considered to be the single day observation that can decide the nature of the next 4 months of the rainy season. I don’t know how the meteorological scientists view this, but the single day observation for 24 hours when Moon crosses Rohini has been given prime importance by the sages. The features of this observation was first given by Narada to Brihaspathi from whom it was transferred to Garga, Parasara, Kasyapa, Maya and others. It is worthy to check the nature of this day scientifically. 

The original features include three-day worship by way of Vedic Homa in the North east of the town. I will write here only observational issues for rainfall enthusiasts. In the lunar month of Ashada, Rohni rises before sunrise in the east. At that time the waning Moon also rises. The observation starts form sunrise on that day until next sunrise. This duration is divided into 8 parts of 3 hours each. Starting from sunrise, each of this part corresponds to each fortnight starting from the lunar month of  Shravana to Kaarthika month. In those days a cloth was tied on top of a pole to watch the wind direction. Today this can be done by modern instruments. So let me not explain about the fluttering of the cloth explained in Rohini Yoga.

Following are the features, if present on the Rohini day would signify plentiful rainfall in each fortnight in accordance with which part of the 3 hour duration, it is noticed.

·         The foremost observation is the wind. It must be a mild and gentle breeze and not windy. The part of day (3 hour duration) when the wind is breezy, it signifies good rainfall for the corresponding fortnight starting from lunar month of Sravana.  

·         A clear sky without clouds and the sun exceedingly hot.

·         A clear sky at night with stars twinkling brightly.

·         If clouds are present they must appear huge and white as snow. Their edges must reflect sun light.

·         Or serpent like clouds, clouds that appear to be twisted together.

·         Or clouds in the shape of huge elephants with huge paraphernalia on its sides.

·         The clouds must not be small in size or dispersed by wind.

·         Clouds of various hues can appear.

·         Or clouds appear in the colour of blue lotus or in the colour of Vishnu dressed in cloth of gold, immediately before sunrise or after sun set.

·         If black clouds are seen, rainbows also may appear, but the wind must be gentle. 

One or many of these features must be present on the day Moon crosses Rohini. It will be all the more good for a bountiful rainy season if these features are seen for the next 3 days after Moon has crossed Rohini.  On the next morning of Rohini day, Moon must rise ahead of Rohini and in the northern side of Rohini, then the rainy season will be bountiful. 

There are a few more observations to be done on Rohini day as follows:

·         If first clouds appear from the east or west and not in other directions, the rainy season will be very good.

·         If first clouds appear from North, North east and North West, it is not a very good sign, but there will be some rain in the rainy season.

·         If the first clouds appear from other directions, less rains are predicted.

·         It is better to have cloudless and hot day for the whole of Rohini day.

·         If on that day, meteor showers, lightening, thunderbolts and unusual appearances occur, they signify failure of the rainy season. 

This year (2013) the Rohini day comes on July 5th. Moon starts transiting Rohini from the early morning hours of Friday much before sunrise. But the observation is done from sun rise. By next morning the Moon had crossed Rohini in advance and will rise before Rohini. This is one of the features for good rainy season. The windiness and clouds must be watched on this way. 

Swati Yoga.

This observation must be done in the lunar months of Jyeshta and Ashada. The 4 stars starting from Swati must be watched during these months. Usually when Moon crosses Swati, Vishaka, Anusha and Jyeshta, there will be dry winds and dust storms. Even in GarbOtta observation (Part 1 of this series), the days of these 4 stars must be windy. If it rains on these days, the rainy season will be a failure. 

In the case of these two months, the Swati days must be windy in the lunar month of Jyeshta and rainy in the lunar month of Ashada. This kind of opposite combination must occur for a bountiful rainy season. Only in the month of Ashada,  it must rain in these 4 days. Otherwise there will be scanty rainfall throughout the season. 

The legend on Swati pearls have come from the peculiar nature of these days. The drizzle swept by dusty winds is the special feature of Swati days in the lunar month of Ashada. The droplets captured by oysters on these days are supposed to become the best pearls. 

This year the Swati days of Jyeshta start from the afternoon of 19th June and end on pre-sunrise time of 23rd June. These days must be dry and windy for good rainy season.

The Swati days of Ashada start before mid night of 16th July and ends on the afternoon of 20th July. There must be rains or drizzles in all or one of these days.  

Ashadhi yoga

This is about the transit of Moon in Ashada stars in the lunar month of Ashada. The observation is done on the Full Moon day when moon transits Uttrashada.

·         If on that day of Asahdhi Yoga (Full Moon), the wind blows form Northeast or North west or East after sunset, that is an indication that the rainy season is on and bountiful. (22nd July this year)

·         If it rains on the 4th day (Chathurthi) after Full moon in the lunar month of Ashada, then it is an indication that the rainy season will be prosperous. (26th July  this year)

These three yogas, namely Rohini Yoga, Swati Yoga and Ashadhi yoga seem to form the last leg of meteorological observation to make sure whether it will rain well in the ensuing rainy season. There are many other features of these three yogas  in Brihad Samhita on how to assess beforehand the amount of rainfall, the extent of rainfall and the number of days of rainfall at a stretch. They can be analysed with meteorological data of the past years and refined for future use. Due to their voluminous nature, I am not producing them here. Anyone wishing to research them can refer to Brihad samhita written by Varahamihira. 

An important feature of this book by Varahamihira is that he says that this knowledge was given by sages of the past. This shows that this knowledge was there in his times – about 1500 years before present. If they have been given by sages of the much earlier period, then it shows the antiquity of this branch of knowledge. Only if they had observed the surroundings for thousands of years, they could have given minute observations for every day application as explained in all these articles. 

Not only these, there are miscellaneous observations and month wise observations which even a common man was aware of in olden days. We will finish this series by writing them in the next part.  

(To be continued)

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Unknown said...

from vasudevsuta das ,
iskcon lokapur

thanks for your reply ,
i would like to know the different
date to be observed for the up coming
year 2014.rains in this area(100 km east of belgaum karnataka) looks to
be more dependent on north east kindly suggest suitable dates for observation.

Jayasree Saranathan said...

Thanks for the interest.
For the rainy season of next year, the observation period starts on 29th December, 2013 early morning 4.40 am and ends on 11th January 2014, morning 6-40 am. This is the Garbhotta period or rain conception period for the next season. Sun will be transiting Purvashada at this time. Make the observation as told in part 1 of this series.

By January 2014 I will post here further observation days based on Solar ingress into Aries and Arudra and navanayakas.